Wafer level self-packaged infrared microsensors

Aamer Mahmoud, Aasutosh Dave, Zeynep Çelik-Butler, Donald P. Butler

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Citations (Scopus)


One common requirement of microbolometers fabricated on both rigid and flexible substrates is the need for vacuum packaging to eliminate the thermal conductivity of air and achieve high performance. However, vacuum packaging of microbolometers is expensive and is a limiting factor in achieving truly low-cost uncooled infrared detection. Vacuum packing of microbolometers on flexible substrates requires a novel approach unless flexibility is to be sacrificed. This paper explores the vacuum packaging of microbolometers through self-packaging. In this case, the micromachined encapsulation in a vacuum cavity is investigated through computer simulation of microbolometers in flexible polyimide films and through the encapsulation of microbolometers on rigid Si substrates with a Si3N4 shell. In this manner, self packaged uncooled microbolometers were fabricated on a Si wafer with semiconducting yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) as the infrared sensing material. The self-packaged structure is designed such that it can be covered with a superstrate, yielding low stress in the flexible skin sensors and better detection figures of merit. The devices have demonstrated voltage responsivities over 103 V/W, detectivities above 106 cm Hz1/2/W and temperature coefficient of resistance around -3.3% K -1. Computer simulations using CoventorWare® and MEMulator® have been used to determine suitable materials for the process, the optimum design of a vacuum element and a streamlined process flow.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
EditorsB.F. Andresen, G.F. Fulop
Number of pages10
EditionPART 2
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes
EventInfrared Technology and Applications XXX - Orlando, FL, United States
Duration: 14 Apr 200415 Dec 2004


OtherInfrared Technology and Applications XXX
CountryUnited States
CityOrlando, FL



  • Distributed sensors
  • Smart skin
  • Uncooled IR detection
  • Wafer-level packaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Mahmoud, A., Dave, A., Çelik-Butler, Z., & Butler, D. P. (2004). Wafer level self-packaged infrared microsensors. In B. F. Andresen, & G. F. Fulop (Eds.), Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (PART 2 ed., Vol. 5406, pp. 473-482) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.542680