Vortex states in nanoscale superconducting squares: The influence of quantum confinement

L. F. Zhang, L. Covaci, M. V. Milošević, G. R. Berdiyorov, F. M. Peeters

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17 Citations (Scopus)


Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory is used to investigate the effect of the size of a superconducting square on the vortex states in the quantum confinement regime. When the superconducting coherence length is comparable to the Fermi wavelength, the shape resonances of the superconducting order parameter have strong influence on the vortex configuration. Several unconventional vortex states, including asymmetric ones, giant-multivortex combinations, and states comprising giant antivortices, were found as ground states and their stability was found to be very sensitive on the value of kFξ0, the size of the sample W, and the magnetic flux Φ. By increasing the temperature and/or enlarging the size of the sample, quantum confinement is suppressed and the conventional mesoscopic vortex states as predicted by the Ginzburg-Laudau (GL) theory are recovered. However, contrary to the GL results we found that the states containing symmetry-induced vortex-antivortex pairs are stable over the whole temperature range. It turns out that the inhomogeneous order parameter induced by quantum confinement favors vortex-antivortex molecules, as well as giant vortices with a rich structure in the vortex core - unattainable in the GL domain.

Original languageEnglish
Article number144501
JournalPhysical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2013


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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