Vapor-induced solid-liquid-solid process for silicon-based nanowire growth

Ji Guang Zhang, Jun Liu, Donghai Wang, Daiwon Choi, Leonard S. Fifield, Chongmin Wang, Gordon Xia, Zimin Nie, Zhenguo Yang, Larry R. Pederson, Gordon Graff

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17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Silicon-based nanowires have been grown from commercial silicon powders under conditions with different oxygen and carbon activities. Nanowires grown in the presence of carbon sources consisted of a crystalline SiC core with an amorphous SiOx shell. The thickness of the SiOx shell decreased as the oxygen concentration in the precursor gases decreased. Nanowires grown in a carbon-free environment consisted of amorphous silicon oxide with a typical composition of SiO1.8. The growth rate of nanowires decreased with decreasing oxygen content in the precursor gases. SiO1.8 nanowires exhibited an initial discharge capacity of ∼1300 mAh g-1 and better stability than those of silicon powders. A vapor-induced solid-liquid-solid (VI-SLS) mechanism is proposed to explain the nanowire growth (including silicon and other metal-based nanowires) from powder sources. In this approach, both a gas source and a solid-powder source are required for nanowire growth. This mechanism is consistent with experimental observations and also can be used to guide the design and growth of other nanowires.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1691-1697
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume195
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2010
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Energy storage
  • Lithium ion batteries
  • Nanowire
  • PHEV
  • SiC
  • Silicon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Cite this

Zhang, J. G., Liu, J., Wang, D., Choi, D., Fifield, L. S., Wang, C., Xia, G., Nie, Z., Yang, Z., Pederson, L. R., & Graff, G. (2010). Vapor-induced solid-liquid-solid process for silicon-based nanowire growth. Journal of Power Sources, 195(6), 1691-1697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.09.068