Utilisation of shale oil by the extraction and retorting of oil shale

M. Z A Anabtawi, N. Hilal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Extraction of the bitumen fraction of oil shale was carried out using two different solvents, chloroform and toluene. Oil shale of 4.0 mm particle size from the El-Lajjun area in Jordan was used in this study. The solvents were recovered by distillation. The spent shale was retorted using a special retort and shale oil (Kerogen) was recovered. The quantity of the hydrocarbon was compared with that produced by using a Fischer Assay retort. When chloroform was used as solvent, it was found that the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.034 g/g of oil shale and the amount of kerogen obtained was 0.099 g/g of oil shale with a total amount of oil 0.133 g/g and with 86.4% of the solvent recovered. When toluene was used as solvent it was found that the amount of bitumen extracted was 0.026 g/g oil shale and the amount of kerogen obtained was 0.116 g/g oil shale with a total amount of oil 0.142 g/g and with 94.7% of the solvent recovered. The quantities of oil recovered using both solvents were higher than that recovered using the Fischer Assay retort where only 0.106 g/g oil shale were obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-207
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Technology and Management
Volume4
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Extraction
  • Oil shale
  • Retorting
  • Shale oil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Geography, Planning and Development

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