Use of complementary markers in assessing glycaemic control in people with diabetic kidney disease undergoing iron or erythropoietin treatment

J. Konya, J. M. Ng, H. Cox, M. Cooke, N. Lewis, S. Bhandari, Stephen Atkin, E. S. Kilpatrick

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Aims: HbA1c values are unreliable in patients with diabetes who have chronic kidney disease who receive iron and/or erythropoiesis stimulating agents. The study aimed to evaluate the utility of the complementary glycaemic markers glycated albumin, fructosamine and 1,5 anhydroglucitol in this group of patients. Methods: A prospective study of patients with Type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease stage IIIB/IV undergoing intravenous iron or erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy. Glycaemic control was monitored using HbA1c, seven-point daily glucose thrice weekly, continuous glucose monitoring, glycated albumin, fructosamine and 1,5 anhydroglucitol. Results: Fifteen patients [9 men; median age 72 years (interquartile range 68-74), follow-up period (16.4 ± 3.7 weeks)] received parenteral iron; 15 patients [11 men; 70 years (interquartile range 62-75), (17.3 ± 3.3 weeks)] received erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. HbA1c fell following treatment with both iron [57 mmol/mol (7.4%) to 53 mmol/mol (7.0%), P < 0.001] and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent [56 mmol/mol (7.3%) to 49 mmol/mol (6.6%), P = 0.01] despite mean blood glucose remaining unchanged (iron: 9.55 to 9.71 mmol/l, P = 0.07; erythropoiesis-stimulating agent: 8.72 to 8.78 mmol/l, P = 0.89). Unlike HbA1c, the glycated albumin, fructosamine and 1,5 anhydroglucitol levels did not change following iron [glycated albumin (16.8 to 16.3%, P = 0.10); fructosamine (259.5 to 256 μmol/l, P = 0.89); 1,5 anhydroglucitol (54.2 to 50.9 μmol/l, P = 0.89)] or erythropoiesis-stimulating agent [glycated albumin (17.9 to 17.5%, P = 0.29), fructosamine (324.3 to 306.0 μmol/l, P = 0.52), 1,5 anhydroglucitol (58.2 to 46.7 μmol/l, P = 0.35)]. Despite this, HbA1c was consistently the marker most closely related to mean blood glucose before and after each treatment (R range 0.7-0.88). Conclusions: These data indicate that HbA1c was statistically most closely related to mean blood glucose, but clinical trends in glycaemia in patients undergoing iron or erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy are likely best assessed by including one of these additional glycaemic markers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1250-1254
Number of pages5
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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