Understanding individual routing behaviour

Antonio Lima, Rade Stanojevic, Dina Papagiannaki, Pablo Rodriguez, Marta C. González

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)


Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13) 70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952. 11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Herewe study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20160021
JournalJournal of the Royal Society Interface
Issue number116
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • City science
  • Complex systems
  • Human mobility
  • Transportation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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  • Cite this

    Lima, A., Stanojevic, R., Papagiannaki, D., Rodriguez, P., & González, M. C. (2016). Understanding individual routing behaviour. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 13(116), [20160021]. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2016.0021