Twenty-five years of HIV: Lessons for low prevalence scenarios

Sharif Sawires, Nina Birnbaum, Laith Abu-Raddad, Greg Szekeres, Jacob Gayle

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

9 Citations (Scopus)


During the initial quarter century since the discovery of HIV, international response has focused on high prevalence scenarios and concentrated epidemics. Until recently, the theoretical underpinnings of HIV prevention were largely based on these responses-the assumption that inadequate responses to concentrated epidemics within low prevalence populations could rapidly lead to generalized epidemics. The limits of these assumptions for HIV prevention in low prevalence scenarios have become evident. While examples of rapid HIV diffusion in once low prevalence scenarios exist, emergence of generalized epidemics are less likely for much of the world. This paper reviews several key issues and advances in biomedical and behavioural HIV prevention to date and highlights relevance to low prevalence scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S75-S82
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue numberSUPPL. 3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2009



  • Gender
  • HIV
  • HIV policy
  • HIV programs
  • HIV structural approaches
  • Low prevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this