Trends in Adult Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Prevalence, Incidence and Urethral Discharge Case Reporting in Morocco over 1995-2015-Estimates Using the Spectrum-Sexually Transmitted Infection Model

Amina El-Kettani, Guy Mahiané, Aziza Bennani, Laith Aburaddad, Alex Smolak, Jane Rowley, Nico Nagelkerke, Houssine El-Rhilani, Kamal Alami, Amina Hançali, Eline Korenromp

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Abstract

Background Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) trends to inform program planning and resource allocation. Methods The Spectrum modeling tool estimated prevalence and incidence of gonorrhea and chlamydia in Morocco's 15-to 49-year-old population, based on prevalence surveys. Incident cases, broken down between symptomatic and asymptomatic, and treated versus untreated, were compared with urethral discharge (UD) case reports, to estimate reporting completeness among treated UD cases. Results Gonorrhea prevalence was estimated at 0.37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-1.0%) in women and 0.32% (0.12-0.87%) in men in 2015; chlamydia prevalences were 3.8% (95% CI, 2.1-6.4%) and 3.0% (95% CI, 1.7-5.1%). Corresponding estimated numbers of new cases in women and men in 2015 were 79,598 (95% CI, 23,918-256,206) and 112,013 (95% CI, 28,700-307,433) for gonorrhea, and 291,908 (95% CI, 161,064-524,270) and 314,032 (95% CI, 186,076-559,133) for chlamydia. Gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalence had declined by an estimated 41% and 27%, respectively, over 1995 to 2015. Prevalence declines probably related to improved STI treatment coverage, and decreasing risk behaviors. Reporting completeness among treated UD cases was estimated at 46% to 77% in 2015. Reported UD cases corresponded to 13% of all estimated (symptomatic and asymptomatic) gonorrhea and chlamydia cases. Conclusions STI declines and improvements in treatment coverage are consistent with Morocco's introduction of syndromic management in 2000, scale-up of prevention, and declining human immunodeficiency virus incidence. While gonorrhea is four-fold more common as cause of clinical UD cases than chlamydia, Morocco continues to suffer a large, untreated burden of chlamydia. Reliable monitoring of both STIs requires new periodic surveys and/or novel forms of affordable surveillance beyond high-risk populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-564
Number of pages8
JournalSexually Transmitted Diseases
Volume44
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017

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Morocco
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Confidence Intervals
Incidence
Health Priorities
Resource Allocation
Health Resources
Risk-Taking
Population
HIV
Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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Trends in Adult Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Prevalence, Incidence and Urethral Discharge Case Reporting in Morocco over 1995-2015-Estimates Using the Spectrum-Sexually Transmitted Infection Model. / El-Kettani, Amina; Mahiané, Guy; Bennani, Aziza; Aburaddad, Laith; Smolak, Alex; Rowley, Jane; Nagelkerke, Nico; El-Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Hançali, Amina; Korenromp, Eline.

In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Vol. 44, No. 9, 01.09.2017, p. 557-564.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

El-Kettani, Amina ; Mahiané, Guy ; Bennani, Aziza ; Aburaddad, Laith ; Smolak, Alex ; Rowley, Jane ; Nagelkerke, Nico ; El-Rhilani, Houssine ; Alami, Kamal ; Hançali, Amina ; Korenromp, Eline. / Trends in Adult Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Prevalence, Incidence and Urethral Discharge Case Reporting in Morocco over 1995-2015-Estimates Using the Spectrum-Sexually Transmitted Infection Model. In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2017 ; Vol. 44, No. 9. pp. 557-564.
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abstract = "Background Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) trends to inform program planning and resource allocation. Methods The Spectrum modeling tool estimated prevalence and incidence of gonorrhea and chlamydia in Morocco's 15-to 49-year-old population, based on prevalence surveys. Incident cases, broken down between symptomatic and asymptomatic, and treated versus untreated, were compared with urethral discharge (UD) case reports, to estimate reporting completeness among treated UD cases. Results Gonorrhea prevalence was estimated at 0.37{\%} (95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 0.14-1.0{\%}) in women and 0.32{\%} (0.12-0.87{\%}) in men in 2015; chlamydia prevalences were 3.8{\%} (95{\%} CI, 2.1-6.4{\%}) and 3.0{\%} (95{\%} CI, 1.7-5.1{\%}). Corresponding estimated numbers of new cases in women and men in 2015 were 79,598 (95{\%} CI, 23,918-256,206) and 112,013 (95{\%} CI, 28,700-307,433) for gonorrhea, and 291,908 (95{\%} CI, 161,064-524,270) and 314,032 (95{\%} CI, 186,076-559,133) for chlamydia. Gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalence had declined by an estimated 41{\%} and 27{\%}, respectively, over 1995 to 2015. Prevalence declines probably related to improved STI treatment coverage, and decreasing risk behaviors. Reporting completeness among treated UD cases was estimated at 46{\%} to 77{\%} in 2015. Reported UD cases corresponded to 13{\%} of all estimated (symptomatic and asymptomatic) gonorrhea and chlamydia cases. Conclusions STI declines and improvements in treatment coverage are consistent with Morocco's introduction of syndromic management in 2000, scale-up of prevention, and declining human immunodeficiency virus incidence. While gonorrhea is four-fold more common as cause of clinical UD cases than chlamydia, Morocco continues to suffer a large, untreated burden of chlamydia. Reliable monitoring of both STIs requires new periodic surveys and/or novel forms of affordable surveillance beyond high-risk populations.",
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T1 - Trends in Adult Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Prevalence, Incidence and Urethral Discharge Case Reporting in Morocco over 1995-2015-Estimates Using the Spectrum-Sexually Transmitted Infection Model

AU - El-Kettani, Amina

AU - Mahiané, Guy

AU - Bennani, Aziza

AU - Aburaddad, Laith

AU - Smolak, Alex

AU - Rowley, Jane

AU - Nagelkerke, Nico

AU - El-Rhilani, Houssine

AU - Alami, Kamal

AU - Hançali, Amina

AU - Korenromp, Eline

PY - 2017/9/1

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N2 - Background Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) trends to inform program planning and resource allocation. Methods The Spectrum modeling tool estimated prevalence and incidence of gonorrhea and chlamydia in Morocco's 15-to 49-year-old population, based on prevalence surveys. Incident cases, broken down between symptomatic and asymptomatic, and treated versus untreated, were compared with urethral discharge (UD) case reports, to estimate reporting completeness among treated UD cases. Results Gonorrhea prevalence was estimated at 0.37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-1.0%) in women and 0.32% (0.12-0.87%) in men in 2015; chlamydia prevalences were 3.8% (95% CI, 2.1-6.4%) and 3.0% (95% CI, 1.7-5.1%). Corresponding estimated numbers of new cases in women and men in 2015 were 79,598 (95% CI, 23,918-256,206) and 112,013 (95% CI, 28,700-307,433) for gonorrhea, and 291,908 (95% CI, 161,064-524,270) and 314,032 (95% CI, 186,076-559,133) for chlamydia. Gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalence had declined by an estimated 41% and 27%, respectively, over 1995 to 2015. Prevalence declines probably related to improved STI treatment coverage, and decreasing risk behaviors. Reporting completeness among treated UD cases was estimated at 46% to 77% in 2015. Reported UD cases corresponded to 13% of all estimated (symptomatic and asymptomatic) gonorrhea and chlamydia cases. Conclusions STI declines and improvements in treatment coverage are consistent with Morocco's introduction of syndromic management in 2000, scale-up of prevention, and declining human immunodeficiency virus incidence. While gonorrhea is four-fold more common as cause of clinical UD cases than chlamydia, Morocco continues to suffer a large, untreated burden of chlamydia. Reliable monitoring of both STIs requires new periodic surveys and/or novel forms of affordable surveillance beyond high-risk populations.

AB - Background Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) trends to inform program planning and resource allocation. Methods The Spectrum modeling tool estimated prevalence and incidence of gonorrhea and chlamydia in Morocco's 15-to 49-year-old population, based on prevalence surveys. Incident cases, broken down between symptomatic and asymptomatic, and treated versus untreated, were compared with urethral discharge (UD) case reports, to estimate reporting completeness among treated UD cases. Results Gonorrhea prevalence was estimated at 0.37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-1.0%) in women and 0.32% (0.12-0.87%) in men in 2015; chlamydia prevalences were 3.8% (95% CI, 2.1-6.4%) and 3.0% (95% CI, 1.7-5.1%). Corresponding estimated numbers of new cases in women and men in 2015 were 79,598 (95% CI, 23,918-256,206) and 112,013 (95% CI, 28,700-307,433) for gonorrhea, and 291,908 (95% CI, 161,064-524,270) and 314,032 (95% CI, 186,076-559,133) for chlamydia. Gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalence had declined by an estimated 41% and 27%, respectively, over 1995 to 2015. Prevalence declines probably related to improved STI treatment coverage, and decreasing risk behaviors. Reporting completeness among treated UD cases was estimated at 46% to 77% in 2015. Reported UD cases corresponded to 13% of all estimated (symptomatic and asymptomatic) gonorrhea and chlamydia cases. Conclusions STI declines and improvements in treatment coverage are consistent with Morocco's introduction of syndromic management in 2000, scale-up of prevention, and declining human immunodeficiency virus incidence. While gonorrhea is four-fold more common as cause of clinical UD cases than chlamydia, Morocco continues to suffer a large, untreated burden of chlamydia. Reliable monitoring of both STIs requires new periodic surveys and/or novel forms of affordable surveillance beyond high-risk populations.

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