There is now considerable in vitro evidence that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is involved in HIV-1 pathogenesis by inducing CD4+ T-cell death characteristic of AIDS. Therefore, we have tested levels of TRAIL in plasma samples from 107 HIV-1-infected and 53 uninfected controls as well as in longitudinal plasma samples from patients who started antiretroviral therapy (ART). TRAIL was elevated In plasma of HIV-1-infected patients compared with uninfected individuals, and patients receiving ART showed decreased plasma TRAIL levels that correlated with reduction in viral load. In vitro exposure to infectious and noninfectious HIV-1 induced TRAIL in monocytes and marginally in dendritic cells (DCs) but not in macrophages or T cells. Interestingly, the HIV-1 entry inhibitor, soluble CD4, blocked HIV-1-induced production of TRAIL. Furthermore, production and gene expression of TRAIL by monocytes were regulated by type I interferon via signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1)/STAT2 signaling molecule. Ex vivo HIV-1 infection of human tonsil lymphoid tissue also resulted in increased TRAIL production. We demonstrate here that plasma TRAIL is elevated in HSV-1-infected patients and is decreased by ART therapy. The high production of TRAIL by antigen-presenting cells may contribute to the death of CD4+ T cells during progression to AIDS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology