Three-Tier Hierarchical Clusters of Carbon-Coated Li4Ti5O12 Single Crystals as High-Power and High-Energy Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Hongwei Bai, Xiaoli Zan, Zhaoyang Liu, Darren Delai Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)


A novel three-tier hierarchical cluster lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode is reported here, consisting of 1)carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12 crystals as the first nano-tier (ca. 10nm) for high-rate capability; 2)submicron spheres consisting of Li4Ti5O12 crystals as the second submicron tier (100-300nm), facilitating electrolyte infiltration and Li+ diffusion; and 3)clusters comprising Li4Ti5O12 spheres as the third micron-sized tier (1-2μm) to increase the packing density of active materials for high-power LIBs. The submicron tier acts as a transition zone between the nano-tier and micro-tier to further benefit Li+ diffusion, electrolyte infiltration, and electron transport. The carbon coating on Li4Ti5O12 forms a uniform and continuous conductive network for fast electron transport and Li+ diffusion to address the low electronic conductivity obstacle of the Li4Ti5O12 anode. The three-tier hierarchical clusters maximize the close contact between the electrolytes and the active materials for excellent electrochemical performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-97
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016



  • Carbon
  • Conducting materials
  • Hierarchical clusters
  • Lithium titanate
  • Lithium-ion batteries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrochemistry
  • Catalysis

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