Thermodynamic synthesis of solution processable ladder polymers

Jongbok Lee, Bharath Bangalore Rajeeva, Tianyu Yuan, Zi Hao Guo, Yen Hao Lin, Mohammed Al-Hashimi, Yuebing Zheng, Lei Fang

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35 Citations (Scopus)


The synthesis of a carbazole-derived, well-defined ladder polymer was achieved under thermodynamic control by employing reversible ring-closing olefin metathesis. This unique approach featured mild conditions and excellent efficiency, affording the ladder polymer backbone with minimum levels of unreacted defects. Rigorous NMR analysis on a 13C isotope-enriched product revealed that the main-chain contained less than 1% of unreacted precursory vinyl groups. The rigid conformation of the ladder-type backbone was confirmed by photophysical analysis, while the extended rod-like structure was visualized under scanning tunneling microscope. Excellent solubility of this polymer in common organic solvents allowed for feasible processing of thin films using solution-casting techniques. Atomic force microscopy and grazing incident X-ray scattering revealed a uniform and amorphous morphology of these films, in sharp contrast to the polycrystalline thin films of its small molecular counterpart.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)881-889
Number of pages9
JournalChemical Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Lee, J., Rajeeva, B. B., Yuan, T., Guo, Z. H., Lin, Y. H., Al-Hashimi, M., Zheng, Y., & Fang, L. (2016). Thermodynamic synthesis of solution processable ladder polymers. Chemical Science, 7(2), 881-889.