The IceCube prototype string in Amanda

M. Ackermann, J. Ahrens, X. Bai, M. Bartelt, S. W. Barwick, R. Bay, T. Becka, J. K. Becker, K. H. Becker, E. Bernardini, D. Bertrand, D. J. Boersma, S. Böser, O. Botner, A. Bouchta, O. Bouhali, J. Braun, C. Burgess, T. Burgess, T. CastermansW. Chinowsky, D. Chirkin, J. Conrad, J. Cooley, D. F. Cowen, A. Davour, C. De Clercq, T. Deyoung, P. Desiati, P. Ekström, T. Feser, M. Gaug, T. K. Gaisser, R. Ganugapati, H. Geenen, L. Gerhardt, A. Goldschmidt, A. Groß, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, R. Hardtke, T. Harenberg, T. Hauschildt, K. Helbing, M. Hellwig, P. Herquet, G. C. Hill, D. Hubert, B. Hughey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (Amanda) is a high-energy neutrino telescope. It is a lattice of optical modules (OM) installed in the clear ice below the South Pole Station. Each OM contains a photomultiplier tube (PMT) that detects photons of Cherenkov light generated in the ice by muons and electrons. IceCube is a cubic-kilometer-sized expansion of Amanda currently being built at the South Pole. In IceCube the PMT signals are digitized already in the optical modules and transmitted to the surface. A prototype string of 41 OMs equipped with this new all-digital technology was deployed in the Amanda array in the year 2000. In this paper we describe the technology and demonstrate that this string serves as a proof of concept for the IceCube array. Our investigations show that the OM timing accuracy is 5 ns. Atmospheric muons are detected in excellent agreement with expectations with respect to both angular distribution and absolute rate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-181
Number of pages13
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume556
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

muons
strings
neutrinos
Photomultipliers
prototypes
Detectors
modules
Ice
Poles
detectors
photomultiplier tubes
Angular distribution
ice
Telescopes
poles
Photons
Electrons
angular distribution
stations
time measurement

Keywords

  • Amanda
  • IceCube
  • Neutrino telescope
  • Signal digitization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

The IceCube prototype string in Amanda. / Ackermann, M.; Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Bartelt, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Becka, T.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Boersma, D. J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Braun, J.; Burgess, C.; Burgess, T.; Castermans, T.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D. F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; Deyoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Ekström, P.; Feser, T.; Gaug, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Ganugapati, R.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Groß, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Harenberg, T.; Hauschildt, T.; Helbing, K.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G. C.; Hubert, D.; Hughey, B.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 556, No. 1, 01.01.2006, p. 169-181.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ackermann, M, Ahrens, J, Bai, X, Bartelt, M, Barwick, SW, Bay, R, Becka, T, Becker, JK, Becker, KH, Bernardini, E, Bertrand, D, Boersma, DJ, Böser, S, Botner, O, Bouchta, A, Bouhali, O, Braun, J, Burgess, C, Burgess, T, Castermans, T, Chinowsky, W, Chirkin, D, Conrad, J, Cooley, J, Cowen, DF, Davour, A, De Clercq, C, Deyoung, T, Desiati, P, Ekström, P, Feser, T, Gaug, M, Gaisser, TK, Ganugapati, R, Geenen, H, Gerhardt, L, Goldschmidt, A, Groß, A, Hallgren, A, Halzen, F, Hanson, K, Hardtke, R, Harenberg, T, Hauschildt, T, Helbing, K, Hellwig, M, Herquet, P, Hill, GC, Hubert, D & Hughey, B 2006, 'The IceCube prototype string in Amanda', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 556, no. 1, pp. 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2005.10.029
Ackermann, M. ; Ahrens, J. ; Bai, X. ; Bartelt, M. ; Barwick, S. W. ; Bay, R. ; Becka, T. ; Becker, J. K. ; Becker, K. H. ; Bernardini, E. ; Bertrand, D. ; Boersma, D. J. ; Böser, S. ; Botner, O. ; Bouchta, A. ; Bouhali, O. ; Braun, J. ; Burgess, C. ; Burgess, T. ; Castermans, T. ; Chinowsky, W. ; Chirkin, D. ; Conrad, J. ; Cooley, J. ; Cowen, D. F. ; Davour, A. ; De Clercq, C. ; Deyoung, T. ; Desiati, P. ; Ekström, P. ; Feser, T. ; Gaug, M. ; Gaisser, T. K. ; Ganugapati, R. ; Geenen, H. ; Gerhardt, L. ; Goldschmidt, A. ; Groß, A. ; Hallgren, A. ; Halzen, F. ; Hanson, K. ; Hardtke, R. ; Harenberg, T. ; Hauschildt, T. ; Helbing, K. ; Hellwig, M. ; Herquet, P. ; Hill, G. C. ; Hubert, D. ; Hughey, B. / The IceCube prototype string in Amanda. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2006 ; Vol. 556, No. 1. pp. 169-181.
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AU - Barwick, S. W.

AU - Bay, R.

AU - Becka, T.

AU - Becker, J. K.

AU - Becker, K. H.

AU - Bernardini, E.

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AU - Castermans, T.

AU - Chinowsky, W.

AU - Chirkin, D.

AU - Conrad, J.

AU - Cooley, J.

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AU - Davour, A.

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AU - Deyoung, T.

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AU - Ekström, P.

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AU - Gaug, M.

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AU - Ganugapati, R.

AU - Geenen, H.

AU - Gerhardt, L.

AU - Goldschmidt, A.

AU - Groß, A.

AU - Hallgren, A.

AU - Halzen, F.

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