The effect of Ramadan focused education on patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Hoda Gad, Hamad Al-Muhannadi, Hana Purra, Paul Mussleman, Rayaz A. Malik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Aim: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of Ramadan focused education on clinical and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes who fast during Ramadan. Methods: Literature search was done in PubMed, Embase (Ovid), and the Cochrane Library. Quality assessment was done using the ROBINS-I and Cochrane tools for risk of bias and analyses were performed using RevMan version 5.1. Results: From 770 records, 430 full text studies were assessed. After exclusions, the final quantitative analysis included 16 studies. Pre-Ramadan education was associated with a significant reduction in HbA1c (SMD −0.46, 95% CI −0.65 to −0.27P < 0.05) and LDL (SMD −0.09, 95% CI −0.13 to −0.04P < 0.05), an increase in TG (SMD 0.07, 95% CI −0.23 to 0.93P < 0.05) and weight (SMD 0.44, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.81P < 0.05) and no change in hypoglycemic events, BMI, TC, HDL or blood pressure (P > 0.05) during Ramadan. Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that Ramadan-focused diabetes education leads to a decrease in HbA1c and LDL, but an increase in TG and weight during Ramadan. It also identifies a lack of head to head studies and limited observational studies with adequately assessed end-points.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108122
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020



  • Diabetes
  • Education
  • HbA
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Ramadan fasting
  • Weight

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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