Osteoporosis is influenced by genetic factors. The interindividual variability in the activity of CYP3A, the metabolic enzyme of sex hormones, may result from genetic polymorphisms. In a study of 2,178 women of ages 40-79 years, the presence of the CYP3A4*18 variant was found to be significantly associated with low bone mass. In vitro functional analyses indicate that CYP3A4*18 is a gain-of-function mutation in sex steroid metabolism, resulting in rapid oxidation of estrogens and testosterone; in vivo pharmacokinetics using midazolam (MDZ) verify the altered activity of the CYP3A4*18, showing lower metabolic turnover in the mutant than in the wild type. Molecular modeling reveals the structural changes in the substrate recognition sites of CYP3A4*18 that can cause changes in enzymatic activity and that potentially account for the difference between the catalytic activities of estrogen and MDZ, depending on the genotype. The results indicate that a genetic variation in the CYP3A4 gene - as a gain-of-function mutation in the metabolism of certain CYP3A substrates, including sex steroids - may predispose individuals to osteoporosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)