Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Effect of Soy on Thyroid Function

Jemiliat Otun, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Linda Östlundh, Stephen Atkin, Thozhukat Sathyapalan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Soy foods have had an important dietary role in Asian countries for centuries, and in recent years they have become increasingly popular in Western countries as a result of their suggested health benefits. Nevertheless, there are some concerns that soy can have a negative effect on thyroid function and can alter the levels of thyroid hormones. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the link between soy or soy product consumption and thyroid function via the measurement of thyroid hormone levels. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken on all randomised controlled trials of studies including soy as an intervention and where free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured. The search included PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and sources for the grey literature. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model, with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval as summary statistics. A total of 18 articles were suitable for review. The meta-analysis showed no significant changes in fT3 (WMD: 0.027 pmol/L, 95% CI: −0.052, 0.107, p = 0.499; I 2 : 55.58%), fT4 (WMD: −0.003 pmol/L, 95% CI: −0.018, 0.011, p = 0.656; I 2 : 87.58%) while an elevation in TSH levels was observed (WMD: 0.248 mIU/L, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.494, p = 0.049; I 2 : 80.31%) levels with soy supplementation. There was no evidence of publication bias. Soy supplementation has no effect on the thyroid hormones and only very modestly raises TSH levels, the clinical significance, if any, of the rise in TSH is unclear.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3964
JournalScientific reports
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

Fingerprint

Thyrotropin
Meta-Analysis
Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Hormones
Literature
Soy Foods
Publication Bias
Triiodothyronine
Insurance Benefits
Thyroxine
PubMed
MEDLINE
Randomized Controlled Trials
Confidence Intervals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Effect of Soy on Thyroid Function. / Otun, Jemiliat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Östlundh, Linda; Atkin, Stephen; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat.

In: Scientific reports, Vol. 9, No. 1, 3964, 01.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Otun, Jemiliat ; Sahebkar, Amirhossein ; Östlundh, Linda ; Atkin, Stephen ; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat. / Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Effect of Soy on Thyroid Function. In: Scientific reports. 2019 ; Vol. 9, No. 1.
@article{439b45ab4f264ff8887308ed743a704a,
title = "Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Effect of Soy on Thyroid Function",
abstract = "Soy foods have had an important dietary role in Asian countries for centuries, and in recent years they have become increasingly popular in Western countries as a result of their suggested health benefits. Nevertheless, there are some concerns that soy can have a negative effect on thyroid function and can alter the levels of thyroid hormones. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the link between soy or soy product consumption and thyroid function via the measurement of thyroid hormone levels. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken on all randomised controlled trials of studies including soy as an intervention and where free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured. The search included PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and sources for the grey literature. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model, with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95{\%} confidence interval as summary statistics. A total of 18 articles were suitable for review. The meta-analysis showed no significant changes in fT3 (WMD: 0.027 pmol/L, 95{\%} CI: −0.052, 0.107, p = 0.499; I 2 : 55.58{\%}), fT4 (WMD: −0.003 pmol/L, 95{\%} CI: −0.018, 0.011, p = 0.656; I 2 : 87.58{\%}) while an elevation in TSH levels was observed (WMD: 0.248 mIU/L, 95{\%} CI: 0.001, 0.494, p = 0.049; I 2 : 80.31{\%}) levels with soy supplementation. There was no evidence of publication bias. Soy supplementation has no effect on the thyroid hormones and only very modestly raises TSH levels, the clinical significance, if any, of the rise in TSH is unclear.",
author = "Jemiliat Otun and Amirhossein Sahebkar and Linda {\"O}stlundh and Stephen Atkin and Thozhukat Sathyapalan",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1038/s41598-019-40647-x",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
journal = "Scientific Reports",
issn = "2045-2322",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Effect of Soy on Thyroid Function

AU - Otun, Jemiliat

AU - Sahebkar, Amirhossein

AU - Östlundh, Linda

AU - Atkin, Stephen

AU - Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

PY - 2019/12/1

Y1 - 2019/12/1

N2 - Soy foods have had an important dietary role in Asian countries for centuries, and in recent years they have become increasingly popular in Western countries as a result of their suggested health benefits. Nevertheless, there are some concerns that soy can have a negative effect on thyroid function and can alter the levels of thyroid hormones. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the link between soy or soy product consumption and thyroid function via the measurement of thyroid hormone levels. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken on all randomised controlled trials of studies including soy as an intervention and where free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured. The search included PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and sources for the grey literature. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model, with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval as summary statistics. A total of 18 articles were suitable for review. The meta-analysis showed no significant changes in fT3 (WMD: 0.027 pmol/L, 95% CI: −0.052, 0.107, p = 0.499; I 2 : 55.58%), fT4 (WMD: −0.003 pmol/L, 95% CI: −0.018, 0.011, p = 0.656; I 2 : 87.58%) while an elevation in TSH levels was observed (WMD: 0.248 mIU/L, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.494, p = 0.049; I 2 : 80.31%) levels with soy supplementation. There was no evidence of publication bias. Soy supplementation has no effect on the thyroid hormones and only very modestly raises TSH levels, the clinical significance, if any, of the rise in TSH is unclear.

AB - Soy foods have had an important dietary role in Asian countries for centuries, and in recent years they have become increasingly popular in Western countries as a result of their suggested health benefits. Nevertheless, there are some concerns that soy can have a negative effect on thyroid function and can alter the levels of thyroid hormones. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the link between soy or soy product consumption and thyroid function via the measurement of thyroid hormone levels. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken on all randomised controlled trials of studies including soy as an intervention and where free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured. The search included PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and sources for the grey literature. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model, with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval as summary statistics. A total of 18 articles were suitable for review. The meta-analysis showed no significant changes in fT3 (WMD: 0.027 pmol/L, 95% CI: −0.052, 0.107, p = 0.499; I 2 : 55.58%), fT4 (WMD: −0.003 pmol/L, 95% CI: −0.018, 0.011, p = 0.656; I 2 : 87.58%) while an elevation in TSH levels was observed (WMD: 0.248 mIU/L, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.494, p = 0.049; I 2 : 80.31%) levels with soy supplementation. There was no evidence of publication bias. Soy supplementation has no effect on the thyroid hormones and only very modestly raises TSH levels, the clinical significance, if any, of the rise in TSH is unclear.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85062597309&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85062597309&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/s41598-019-40647-x

DO - 10.1038/s41598-019-40647-x

M3 - Article

C2 - 30850697

AN - SCOPUS:85062597309

VL - 9

JO - Scientific Reports

JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

IS - 1

M1 - 3964

ER -