Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using a Double-Slit Curved Wall-Jet Burner

Mohamed A. Ismail, Morkous S. Mansour, Nasir K. Memon, Dalaver H. Anjum, Suk Ho Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A novel double-slit curved wall-jet (DS-CWJ) burner was proposed and utilized for flame synthesis. This burner was comprised of double curved wall-jet nozzles with coaxial slits; the inner slit was for the delivery of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) precursor while the outer one was to supply premixed fuel/air mixture of ethylene (C2H4) or propane (C3H8). This configuration enabled rapid mixing between the precursor and reactants along the curved surface and inside the recirculation zone of the burner. Particle growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and their phases was investigated with varying equivalence ratio and Reynolds number. Flow field and flame structure were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques, respectively. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) for surface area analysis. The flow field consisted of a wall-jet region leading to a recirculation zone, an interaction jet region, followed by a merged-jet region. The DS-CWJ burner revealed appreciable mixing characteristics between the precursor and combustion gases near the nozzle regions, with a slight increase in the axial velocity due to the precursor injection. The precursor supply had a negligible effect on the flame structure. The burner produced a reasonably uniform size (13–18 nm) nanoparticles with a high BET surface area (>100 m2/g). The phase of TiO2 nanoparticles was mainly dependent on the equivalence ratio and fuel type, which impact flame height, heat release rate, and high temperature residence time of the precursor vapor. For ethylene flames, the anatase content increased with the equivalence ratio, whereas it decreased in the case of propane flames. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited high crystallinity and the anatase phase was dominant at high equivalence ratios (ϕ > 1.6) for C2H4, and at low equivalence ratios (ϕ <1.3) for the C3H8 flame.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)623-636
Number of pages14
JournalCombustion Science and Technology
Volume188
Issue number4-5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2016

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Keywords

  • Double-slit curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner
  • Flame synthesis
  • OH-planar laser-induced fluorescence (OH-PLIF)
  • Particle image velocimetry (PIV)
  • Titanium dioxide nanoparticles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Fuel Technology
  • Chemistry(all)

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