Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles containing Fe, Si, and V using multiple diffusion flames and catalytic oxidation capability of carbon-coated nanoparticles

Mohamed A. Ismail, Nasir K. Memon, Mohamed N. Hedhili, Dalaver H. Anjum, Suk Ho Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles containing iron, silicon, and vanadium are synthesized using multiple diffusion flames. The growth of carbon-coated (C–TiO2), carbon-coated with iron oxide (Fe/C–TiO2), silica-coated (Si–TiO2), and vanadium-doped (V–TiO2) TiO2 nanoparticles is demonstrated using a single-step process. Hydrogen, oxygen, and argon are utilized to establish the flame, with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor for TiO2. For the growth of Fe/C–TiO2 nanoparticles, TTIP is mixed with xylene and ferrocene. While for the growth of Si–TiO2 and V–TiO2, TTIP is mixed with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and vanadium (V) oxytriisopropoxide, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy-filtered TEM for elemental mapping (of Si, C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption BET surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Anatase is the dominant phase for the C–TiO2, Fe/C–TiO2, and Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, whereas rutile is the dominant phase for the V–TiO2 nanoparticles. For C–TiO2 and Fe/C–TiO2, the nanoparticles are coated with about 3-5-nm thickness of carbon. The iron-based TiO2 nanoparticles significantly improve the catalytic oxidation of carbon, where complete oxidation of carbon occurs at a temperature of 470 °C (with iron) compared to 610 °C (without iron). Enhanced catalytic oxidation properties are also observed for model soot particles, Printex-U, when mixed with Fe/C-TiO2. With regards to Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, a uniform coating of 3 to 8 nm of silicon dioxide is observed around the TiO2 particles. This coating mainly occurs due to variance in the chemical reaction rates of the precursors. Finally, with regards to V–TiO2, vanadium is doped within the TiO2 nanoparticles as visualized by HRTEM and XPS further confirms the formation of V4+ and V5+ oxidation states.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Nanoparticle Research
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016

Fingerprint

Diffusion Flame
TiO2
Catalytic oxidation
diffusion flames
Oxidation
Nanoparticles
Carbon
Synthesis
nanoparticles
oxidation
carbon
synthesis
Vanadium
Iron
vanadium
Titanium
iron
X-ray Spectroscopy
titanium
Transmission Electron Microscopy

Keywords

  • Carbon oxidation
  • Flame synthesis
  • Multiple diffusion flames
  • Nanoscale coating
  • Titanium dioxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Bioengineering

Cite this

Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles containing Fe, Si, and V using multiple diffusion flames and catalytic oxidation capability of carbon-coated nanoparticles. / Ismail, Mohamed A.; Memon, Nasir K.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Chung, Suk Ho.

In: Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 22, 01.01.2016, p. 1-14.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ismail, Mohamed A. ; Memon, Nasir K. ; Hedhili, Mohamed N. ; Anjum, Dalaver H. ; Chung, Suk Ho. / Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles containing Fe, Si, and V using multiple diffusion flames and catalytic oxidation capability of carbon-coated nanoparticles. In: Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2016 ; Vol. 18, No. 1. pp. 1-14.
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