Synthesis of pure brookite nanorods in a nonaqueous growth environment

Mahmoud Hezam, Saif M.H. Qaid, Idriss M. Bedja, Fahhad Alharbi, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Abdullah Aldwayyan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Brookite TiO2 is the most difficult TiO2 polymorph to synthesize. The available methods in the literature to produce brookite nanostructures mostly use water-based techniques for the preparation of water-soluble Ti complexes first, followed by a hydrothermal growth of the brookite nanostructures. Besides its multi-step nature, achieving a single brookite phase and optimizing the aqueous growth environment are all issues to be hardly controlled. In this work, pure brookite TiO2 nanorods are synthesized using tetrabutyl titanate Ti(OBu)4 and Sodium Fluoride (NaF) as precursor materials in a simple non-aqueous one-pot solvothermal process. Alcoholysis of only Ti(OBu)4 in ethanol resulted in pure anatase nanoparticles, while the addition of NaF was essential to promote the growth of highly pure brookite nanorods. The phase purity is confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy, and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. The growth mechanism is explained according to the Ostwald’s step rule, where Na+ ions are anticipated to have a potential role in driving the growth process towards the brookite phase.

Original languageEnglish
Article number562
JournalCrystals
Volume9
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019

Fingerprint

Nanorods
nanorods
synthesis
Nanostructures
sodium fluorides
High resolution transmission electron microscopy
Polymorphism
anatase
Titanium dioxide
water
Raman spectroscopy
Water
purity
Ethanol
ethyl alcohol
Sodium Fluoride
Sodium
titanium dioxide
Nanoparticles
X ray diffraction

Keywords

  • Anatase
  • Brookite
  • Raman
  • Titanium dioxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Cite this

Hezam, M., Qaid, S. M. H., Bedja, I. M., Alharbi, F., Nazeeruddin, M. K., & Aldwayyan, A. (2019). Synthesis of pure brookite nanorods in a nonaqueous growth environment. Crystals, 9(11), [562]. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9110562

Synthesis of pure brookite nanorods in a nonaqueous growth environment. / Hezam, Mahmoud; Qaid, Saif M.H.; Bedja, Idriss M.; Alharbi, Fahhad; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Aldwayyan, Abdullah.

In: Crystals, Vol. 9, No. 11, 562, 11.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hezam, M, Qaid, SMH, Bedja, IM, Alharbi, F, Nazeeruddin, MK & Aldwayyan, A 2019, 'Synthesis of pure brookite nanorods in a nonaqueous growth environment', Crystals, vol. 9, no. 11, 562. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9110562
Hezam, Mahmoud ; Qaid, Saif M.H. ; Bedja, Idriss M. ; Alharbi, Fahhad ; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja ; Aldwayyan, Abdullah. / Synthesis of pure brookite nanorods in a nonaqueous growth environment. In: Crystals. 2019 ; Vol. 9, No. 11.
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