Spatial modulation for generalized MIMO: Challenges, opportunities, and implementation

Marco Di Renzo, Harald Haas, Ali Ghrayeb, Shinya Sugiura, Lajos Hanzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

799 Citations (Scopus)


A key challenge of future mobile communication research is to strike an attractive compromise between wireless network's area spectral efficiency and energy efficiency. This necessitates a clean-slate approach to wireless system design, embracing the rich body of existing knowledge, especially on multiple-input-multiple-ouput (MIMO) technologies. This motivates the proposal of an emerging wireless communications concept conceived for single-radio-frequency (RF) large-scale MIMO communications, which is termed as SM. The concept of SM has established itself as a beneficial transmission paradigm, subsuming numerous members of the MIMO system family. The research of SM has reached sufficient maturity to motivate its comparison to state-of-the-art MIMO communications, as well as to inspire its application to other emerging wireless systems such as relay-aided, cooperative, small-cell, optical wireless, and power-efficient communications. Furthermore, it has received sufficient research attention to be implemented in testbeds, and it holds the promise of stimulating further vigorous interdisciplinary research in the years to come. This tutorial paper is intended to offer a comprehensive state-of-the-art survey on SM-MIMO research, to provide a critical appraisal of its potential advantages, and to promote the discussion of its beneficial application areas and their research challenges leading to the analysis of the technological issues associated with the implementation of SM-MIMO. The paper is concluded with the description of the world's first experimental activities in this vibrant research field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6678765
Pages (from-to)56-103
Number of pages48
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014



  • Green and sustainable wireless communications
  • heterogenous cellular networks
  • large-scale multiantenna systems
  • multiantenna wireless systems
  • network-coded cooperative wireless networks
  • relay-aided wireless communications
  • single-radio-frequency (RF) multiantenna systems
  • spatial modulation
  • testbed implementation
  • visible light communications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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