The sodium battery has the potential to be the next generation rechargeable system which utilizes cheaper and more abundant sodium material but affords nearly the same power as lithium batteries. One of the key barriers for the sodium battery is the lack of stable anode materials which can insert sodium ions reversibly at relatively low potential. This contribution reports the sodium insertion in a series of organic carboxylate based materials: (C 8H 4Na 2O 4), (C 8H 6O 4), (C 8H 5NaO 4), (C 8Na 2F 4O 4), (C 10H 2Na 4O 8), (C 14H 4O 6) and (C 14H 4Na 4O 8) at low voltage (below 0.6 V vs. Na/Na +). These organic anode materials can insert reversibly up to 2 Na per molecule with good cycleability. The Na insertion mechanism was proposed and 3.6 V full sodium batteries were made and cycled reversibly at room temperature and at 55°C.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Environmental Chemistry
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering