Small-scale experimental study of vaporization flux of liquid nitrogen released on water

Nirupama Gopalaswami, Tomasz Olewski, Luc Vechot, M. Sam Mannan

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6 Citations (Scopus)


A small-scale experimental study was conducted using liquid nitrogen to investigate the convective heat transfer behavior of cryogenic liquids released on water. The experiment was performed by spilling five different amounts of liquid nitrogen at different release rates and initial water temperatures. The vaporization mass fluxes of liquid nitrogen were determined directly from the mass loss measured during the experiment. A variation of initial vaporization fluxes and a subsequent shift in heat transfer mechanism were observed with changes in initial water temperature. The initial vaporization fluxes were directly dependent on the liquid nitrogen spill rate. The heat flux from water to liquid nitrogen determined from experimental data was validated with two theoretical correlations for convective boiling. It was also observed from validation with correlations that liquid nitrogen was found to be predominantly in the film boiling regime. The substantial results provide a suitable procedure for predicting the heat flux from water to cryogenic liquids that is required for source term modeling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-16
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2015



  • Convective boiling
  • Liquid nitrogen
  • LNG
  • Source term
  • Vaporization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Medicine(all)

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