Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite

Michael J. McAllister, Je Luen Li, Douglas H. Adamson, Hannes C. Schniepp, Ahmed A. Abdala, Jun Liu, Margarita Herrera-Alonso, David L. Milius, Roberto Car, Robert K. Prud'homme, Ilhan A. Aksay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2572 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A detailed analysis of the thermal expansion mechanism of graphite oxide to produce functionalized graphene sheets is provided. Exfoliation takes place when the decomposition rate of the epoxy and hydroxyl sites of graphite oxide exceeds the diffusion rate of the evolved gases, thus yielding pressures that exceed the van der Waals forces holding the graphene sheets together. A comparison of the Arrhenius dependence of the reaction rate against the calculated diffusion coefficient based on Knudsen diffusion suggests a critical temperature of 550 °C which must be exceeded for exfoliation to occur. As a result of their wrinkled nature, the functionalized and defective graphene sheets do not collapse back to graphite oxide but are highly agglomerated. After dispersion by ultrasonication in appropriate solvents, statistical analysis by atomic force microscopy shows that 80% of the observed flakes are single sheets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4396-4404
Number of pages9
JournalChemistry of Materials
Volume19
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Sep 2007
Externally publishedYes

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Graphite
Graphene
Thermal expansion
Oxidation
Oxides
Van der Waals forces
Reaction rates
Atomic force microscopy
Statistical methods
Decomposition
Gases
Hydroxyl Radical
Temperature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

McAllister, M. J., Li, J. L., Adamson, D. H., Schniepp, H. C., Abdala, A. A., Liu, J., ... Aksay, I. A. (2007). Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite. Chemistry of Materials, 19(18), 4396-4404. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm0630800

Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite. / McAllister, Michael J.; Li, Je Luen; Adamson, Douglas H.; Schniepp, Hannes C.; Abdala, Ahmed A.; Liu, Jun; Herrera-Alonso, Margarita; Milius, David L.; Car, Roberto; Prud'homme, Robert K.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

In: Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 19, No. 18, 04.09.2007, p. 4396-4404.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

McAllister, MJ, Li, JL, Adamson, DH, Schniepp, HC, Abdala, AA, Liu, J, Herrera-Alonso, M, Milius, DL, Car, R, Prud'homme, RK & Aksay, IA 2007, 'Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite', Chemistry of Materials, vol. 19, no. 18, pp. 4396-4404. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm0630800
McAllister, Michael J. ; Li, Je Luen ; Adamson, Douglas H. ; Schniepp, Hannes C. ; Abdala, Ahmed A. ; Liu, Jun ; Herrera-Alonso, Margarita ; Milius, David L. ; Car, Roberto ; Prud'homme, Robert K. ; Aksay, Ilhan A. / Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite. In: Chemistry of Materials. 2007 ; Vol. 19, No. 18. pp. 4396-4404.
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