There has been considerable research effort on tailoring the nonlinear optical properties of dielectric materials by dispersing nanometer-sized metallic clusters in them. It has been proposed that the optical response of this type of material is related to the quantum antidots (vacancy clusters), which is spatially located at the interface between the metal cluster and the dielectric matrix. In order to clarify the vacancy clustering behavior as well as its correlation with Au clustering, single crystal TiO2 has been implanted with Au ions at 975K and subsequently annealed at 1275K for 10h. A characteristic self-assembling of nanocavities along the boundary between the region of Au clusters and the free surface has been observed in the present system. These cavities are faceted along TiO2(110) and have a size of ∼10nm. High angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging in an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) revealed that vacancy clusters of ∼2nm in size also exist in the Au populated regions. Formation of cavities in Au-irradiated TiO2 strongly indicates that vacancy clustering processes prevail over Frenkel-pair recombination. Furthermore, the Au atoms substitution for Ti in TiO2 is also directly observed by STEM-HAADF imaging and by channeling Rutherford backscattering spectrometry.
|Journal||Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Dec 2005|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics