N-Acetyltyramine was synthesized and electropolymerized together with a negatively charged sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode followed by the electropolymerization of pyrrole to form a stable and permselective film for selective dopamine detection. The selectivity and sensitivity of the formed layer-by-layer film was governed by the sequence of deposition and the applied potential. Raman results showed a decrease in the peak intensity at 1329 cm-1 (sp3), the main feature of BDD, upon each electrodeposition step. Such a decrease was correlated well with the change of the charge-transfer resistance derived from impedance data, i.e., reflecting the formation of the layer-by-layer film. The polycrystalline BDD surface became more even with lower surface roughness as revealed by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The modified BDD electrode exhibited rapid response to dopamine within 1.5-2 s and a low detection limit of 4-5 nM with excellent reproducibility. Electroactive interferences caused by 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, ascorbic acid, and uric acid were completely eliminated, whereas the signal response of epinephrine and norepinephrine was significantly suppressed by the permselective film.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry