Rheology and hydraulics of polymer-based foams at elevated temperatures

Vineet Sinha, Ramadan Ahmed, Tarek Akhtar, Subhash Shah, Mahmood Amani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Foam has been successfully used for different operations like well stimulation, drilling, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), cleanout, and acidizing operations in the oil and gas industry. Additionally, the low liquid content of foam provides a distinct advantage in terms of lesser material requirements. However, accurate prediction of rheology is necessary for the success of field operations, which requires a rheological model that incorporates the effect of temperature on foam properties as it circulates downhole. In the present investigation, polyanionic cellulose (PAC)based foam was generated using nitrogen as the gas phase and its rheology was determined using a recirculating flow loop that has three pipe viscometers (3.05, 6.22, and 12.7 mm ID)and a fully-eccentric annular section (9.53 mm OD × 12.57 mm ID). Experiments were conducted within the temperature range of 24 to 149 °C and at various foam qualities (gas phase volume fraction). The foam was circulated at different flow rates and the differential pressure across each pipe section was recorded. All tests were conducted at 6.89 MPa. The foams displayed power-law fluid behavior in the shear rate range tested (100–5000 s−1), which is often experienced in the wellbore. Like its base liquid, polymer foam exhibited thermal thinning and a significant rheology change with temperature. Only high-quality foam (75%)at ambient temperature (24 °C)showed yielding behavior, which was measured in a pipe viscometer under static condition. The disappearance of yield stress at elevated temperature could be attributed to thermal thinning of the liquid phase that weakens the strength of bubble structure. Experimental data is used to develop new correlations to predict power-law fluid parameters as a function of temperature, base fluid properties, and foam quality. Moreover, the measurements are compared with the predictions of existing models, and discrepancies are observed, which could be attributed to the variation in foam generation technique, the nature and concentration of polymer, and the concentration of surfactant used in the experiments in which data was obtained to develop the models. Furthermore, annular pressure loss measurements obtained at low temperatures (24 and 79 °C)show predominantly good agreement with predictions of a hydraulic model that uses the new correlations. Discrepancies increased with temperature as the foam becomes unstable due to thermal thinning of the liquid film and subsequent weakening of bubble structure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)330-346
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Petroleum Science and Engineering
Volume180
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2019

Fingerprint

rheology
Rheology
foam
Foams
polymer
Hydraulics
hydraulics
Polymers
temperature
Temperature
thinning
liquid
pipe
Viscometers
Pipe
Bubbles (in fluids)
Fluids
fluid
bubble
power law

Keywords

  • Drilling
  • Foam
  • Hydraulics
  • Polymer
  • Rheology
  • Stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Fuel Technology
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Cite this

Rheology and hydraulics of polymer-based foams at elevated temperatures. / Sinha, Vineet; Ahmed, Ramadan; Akhtar, Tarek; Shah, Subhash; Amani, Mahmood.

In: Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 180, 01.09.2019, p. 330-346.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sinha, Vineet ; Ahmed, Ramadan ; Akhtar, Tarek ; Shah, Subhash ; Amani, Mahmood. / Rheology and hydraulics of polymer-based foams at elevated temperatures. In: Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2019 ; Vol. 180. pp. 330-346.
@article{a8e0ef0b4d71459da8e168898fcb2021,
title = "Rheology and hydraulics of polymer-based foams at elevated temperatures",
abstract = "Foam has been successfully used for different operations like well stimulation, drilling, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), cleanout, and acidizing operations in the oil and gas industry. Additionally, the low liquid content of foam provides a distinct advantage in terms of lesser material requirements. However, accurate prediction of rheology is necessary for the success of field operations, which requires a rheological model that incorporates the effect of temperature on foam properties as it circulates downhole. In the present investigation, polyanionic cellulose (PAC)based foam was generated using nitrogen as the gas phase and its rheology was determined using a recirculating flow loop that has three pipe viscometers (3.05, 6.22, and 12.7 mm ID)and a fully-eccentric annular section (9.53 mm OD × 12.57 mm ID). Experiments were conducted within the temperature range of 24 to 149 °C and at various foam qualities (gas phase volume fraction). The foam was circulated at different flow rates and the differential pressure across each pipe section was recorded. All tests were conducted at 6.89 MPa. The foams displayed power-law fluid behavior in the shear rate range tested (100–5000 s−1), which is often experienced in the wellbore. Like its base liquid, polymer foam exhibited thermal thinning and a significant rheology change with temperature. Only high-quality foam (75{\%})at ambient temperature (24 °C)showed yielding behavior, which was measured in a pipe viscometer under static condition. The disappearance of yield stress at elevated temperature could be attributed to thermal thinning of the liquid phase that weakens the strength of bubble structure. Experimental data is used to develop new correlations to predict power-law fluid parameters as a function of temperature, base fluid properties, and foam quality. Moreover, the measurements are compared with the predictions of existing models, and discrepancies are observed, which could be attributed to the variation in foam generation technique, the nature and concentration of polymer, and the concentration of surfactant used in the experiments in which data was obtained to develop the models. Furthermore, annular pressure loss measurements obtained at low temperatures (24 and 79 °C)show predominantly good agreement with predictions of a hydraulic model that uses the new correlations. Discrepancies increased with temperature as the foam becomes unstable due to thermal thinning of the liquid film and subsequent weakening of bubble structure.",
keywords = "Drilling, Foam, Hydraulics, Polymer, Rheology, Stimulation",
author = "Vineet Sinha and Ramadan Ahmed and Tarek Akhtar and Subhash Shah and Mahmood Amani",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.petrol.2019.05.047",
language = "English",
volume = "180",
pages = "330--346",
journal = "Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering",
issn = "0920-4105",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Rheology and hydraulics of polymer-based foams at elevated temperatures

AU - Sinha, Vineet

AU - Ahmed, Ramadan

AU - Akhtar, Tarek

AU - Shah, Subhash

AU - Amani, Mahmood

PY - 2019/9/1

Y1 - 2019/9/1

N2 - Foam has been successfully used for different operations like well stimulation, drilling, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), cleanout, and acidizing operations in the oil and gas industry. Additionally, the low liquid content of foam provides a distinct advantage in terms of lesser material requirements. However, accurate prediction of rheology is necessary for the success of field operations, which requires a rheological model that incorporates the effect of temperature on foam properties as it circulates downhole. In the present investigation, polyanionic cellulose (PAC)based foam was generated using nitrogen as the gas phase and its rheology was determined using a recirculating flow loop that has three pipe viscometers (3.05, 6.22, and 12.7 mm ID)and a fully-eccentric annular section (9.53 mm OD × 12.57 mm ID). Experiments were conducted within the temperature range of 24 to 149 °C and at various foam qualities (gas phase volume fraction). The foam was circulated at different flow rates and the differential pressure across each pipe section was recorded. All tests were conducted at 6.89 MPa. The foams displayed power-law fluid behavior in the shear rate range tested (100–5000 s−1), which is often experienced in the wellbore. Like its base liquid, polymer foam exhibited thermal thinning and a significant rheology change with temperature. Only high-quality foam (75%)at ambient temperature (24 °C)showed yielding behavior, which was measured in a pipe viscometer under static condition. The disappearance of yield stress at elevated temperature could be attributed to thermal thinning of the liquid phase that weakens the strength of bubble structure. Experimental data is used to develop new correlations to predict power-law fluid parameters as a function of temperature, base fluid properties, and foam quality. Moreover, the measurements are compared with the predictions of existing models, and discrepancies are observed, which could be attributed to the variation in foam generation technique, the nature and concentration of polymer, and the concentration of surfactant used in the experiments in which data was obtained to develop the models. Furthermore, annular pressure loss measurements obtained at low temperatures (24 and 79 °C)show predominantly good agreement with predictions of a hydraulic model that uses the new correlations. Discrepancies increased with temperature as the foam becomes unstable due to thermal thinning of the liquid film and subsequent weakening of bubble structure.

AB - Foam has been successfully used for different operations like well stimulation, drilling, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), cleanout, and acidizing operations in the oil and gas industry. Additionally, the low liquid content of foam provides a distinct advantage in terms of lesser material requirements. However, accurate prediction of rheology is necessary for the success of field operations, which requires a rheological model that incorporates the effect of temperature on foam properties as it circulates downhole. In the present investigation, polyanionic cellulose (PAC)based foam was generated using nitrogen as the gas phase and its rheology was determined using a recirculating flow loop that has three pipe viscometers (3.05, 6.22, and 12.7 mm ID)and a fully-eccentric annular section (9.53 mm OD × 12.57 mm ID). Experiments were conducted within the temperature range of 24 to 149 °C and at various foam qualities (gas phase volume fraction). The foam was circulated at different flow rates and the differential pressure across each pipe section was recorded. All tests were conducted at 6.89 MPa. The foams displayed power-law fluid behavior in the shear rate range tested (100–5000 s−1), which is often experienced in the wellbore. Like its base liquid, polymer foam exhibited thermal thinning and a significant rheology change with temperature. Only high-quality foam (75%)at ambient temperature (24 °C)showed yielding behavior, which was measured in a pipe viscometer under static condition. The disappearance of yield stress at elevated temperature could be attributed to thermal thinning of the liquid phase that weakens the strength of bubble structure. Experimental data is used to develop new correlations to predict power-law fluid parameters as a function of temperature, base fluid properties, and foam quality. Moreover, the measurements are compared with the predictions of existing models, and discrepancies are observed, which could be attributed to the variation in foam generation technique, the nature and concentration of polymer, and the concentration of surfactant used in the experiments in which data was obtained to develop the models. Furthermore, annular pressure loss measurements obtained at low temperatures (24 and 79 °C)show predominantly good agreement with predictions of a hydraulic model that uses the new correlations. Discrepancies increased with temperature as the foam becomes unstable due to thermal thinning of the liquid film and subsequent weakening of bubble structure.

KW - Drilling

KW - Foam

KW - Hydraulics

KW - Polymer

KW - Rheology

KW - Stimulation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066237193&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85066237193&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.petrol.2019.05.047

DO - 10.1016/j.petrol.2019.05.047

M3 - Article

VL - 180

SP - 330

EP - 346

JO - Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering

JF - Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering

SN - 0920-4105

ER -