Rare coding variants and X-linked loci associated with age at menarche

Kathryn L. Lunetta, Felix R. Day, Patrick Sulem, Katherine S. Ruth, Joyce Y. Tung, David A. Hinds, Toñu Esko, Cathy E. Elks, Elisabeth Altmaier, Chunyan He, Jennifer E. Huffman, Evelin Mihailov, Eleonora Porcu, Antonietta Robino, Lynda M. Rose, Ursula M. Schick, Lisette Stolk, Alexander Teumer, Deborah J. Thompson, Michela TragliaCarol A. Wang, Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong, Antonis C. Antoniou, Caterina Barbieri, Andrea D. Coviello, Francesco Cucca, Ellen W. Demerath, Alison M. Dunning, Ilaria Gandin, Megan L. Grove, Daniel F. Gudbjartsson, Lynne J. Hocking, Albert Hofman, Jinyan Huang, Rebecca D. Jackson, David Karasik, Jennifer Kriebel, Ethan M. Lange, Leslie A. Lange, Claudia Langenberg, Xin Li, Jian'an Luan, Reedik Mägi, Alanna C. Morrison, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Ailith Pirie, Ozren Polasek, David Porteous, Alex P. Reiner, Fernando Rivadeneira, Igor Rudan, Cinzia F. Sala, David Schlessinger, Robert A. Scott, Doris Stöckl, Jenny A. Visser, Uwe Völker, Diego Vozzi, James G. Wilson, Marek Zygmunt, Eric Boerwinkle, Julie E. Buring, Laura Crisponi, Douglas F. Easton, Caroline Hayward, Frank B. Hu, Simin Liu, Andres Metspalu, Craig E. Pennell, Paul M. Ridker, Konstantin Strauch, Elizabeth A. Streeten, Daniela Toniolo, André G. Uitterlinden, Sheila Ulivi, Henry Völzke, Nicholas J. Wareham, Melissa Wellons, Nora Franceschini, Daniel I. Chasman, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Anna Murray, Kari Stefansson, Joanne M. Murabito, Ken K. Ong, John R.B. Perry, Nita G. Forouhi, Nicola D. Kerrison, Stephen J. Sharp, Matt Sims, Inês Barroso, Panos Deloukas, Mark I. McCarthy, Larraitz Arriola, Beverley Balkau, Aurelio Barricarte, Heiner Boeing, Paul W. Franks, Carlos Gonzalez, Sara Grioni, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J. Key, Carmen Navarro, Peter M. Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, J. Ramón Quirós, Olov Rolandsson, Carlotta Sacerdote, María José Sánchez, Nadia Slimani, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino, Daphne L. Van Der A, Yvonne T. Van Der Schouw, Elio Riboli, Blair H. Smith, Archie Campbell, Ian J. Deary, Andrew M. McIntosh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

More than 100 loci have been identified for age at menarche by genome-wide association studies; however, collectively these explain only ∼ 3% of the trait variance. Here we test two overlooked sources of variation in 192,974 European ancestry women: low-frequency protein-coding variants and X-chromosome variants. Five missense/nonsense variants (in ALMS1/LAMB2/TNRC6A/TACR3/PRKAG1) are associated with age at menarche (minor allele frequencies 0.08-4.6%; effect sizes 0.08-1.25 years per allele; P<5 × 10-8). In addition, we identify common X-chromosome loci at IGSF1 (rs762080, P=9.4 × 10-13) and FAAH2 (rs5914101, P=4.9 × 10-10). Highlighted genes implicate cellular energy homeostasis, post-transcriptional gene silencing and fatty-acid amide signalling. A frequently reported mutation in TACR3 for idiopathic hypogonatrophic hypogonadism (p.W275X) is associated with 1.25-year-later menarche (P=2.8 × 10-11), illustrating the utility of population studies to estimate the penetrance of reportedly pathogenic mutations. Collectively, these novel variants explain ∼0.5% variance, indicating that these overlooked sources of variation do not substantially explain the 'missing heritability' of this complex trait.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7756
JournalNature communications
Volume6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Aug 2015

    Fingerprint

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Lunetta, K. L., Day, F. R., Sulem, P., Ruth, K. S., Tung, J. Y., Hinds, D. A., Esko, T., Elks, C. E., Altmaier, E., He, C., Huffman, J. E., Mihailov, E., Porcu, E., Robino, A., Rose, L. M., Schick, U. M., Stolk, L., Teumer, A., Thompson, D. J., ... McIntosh, A. M. (2015). Rare coding variants and X-linked loci associated with age at menarche. Nature communications, 6, [7756]. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8756