Q-Learning Based Two-Timescale Power Allocation for Multi-Homing Hybrid RF/VLC Networks

Justin Kong, Zi Yang Wu, Muhammad Ismail, Erchin Serpedin, Khalid A. Qaraqe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This letter investigates hybrid networks composed of a radio frequency (RF) access point (AP) and multiple visible light communication (VLC) APs. We consider mobile multi-homing users that can aggregate resources from both RF and VLC APs. In hybrid RF/VLC networks, RF channel gains vary faster than VLC channels due to small scale fading. By leveraging multi-agent Q-learning to interact with the dynamics of wireless environments, we develop an online two-timescale power allocation strategy that optimizes the transmit powers at the RF and VLC APs to ensure quality-of-service satisfaction. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed Q-learning based strategy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Wireless Communications Letters
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2019



  • Fading channels
  • hybrid networks
  • Hybrid power systems
  • Light emitting diodes
  • optimization
  • Q-learning.
  • Quality of service
  • Radio frequency
  • reinforcement learning
  • Resource management
  • two-timescale
  • Visible light communication
  • Wireless communication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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