Bioconjugation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with biomolecules promises exciting applications such as biosensing, nanobiocomposite formulation, design of drug vector systems, and probing protein interactions. Pristine CNTs, however, are virtually water-insoluble and difficult to evenly disperse in a liquid matrix. Therefore, it is necessary to attach molecules or functional groups to their sidewalls to enable bioconjugation. Both noncovalent and covalent procedures can be used to conjugate CNTs with a target biomolecule for a specific bioapplication. This chapter presents a few selected protocols that can be performed at any wet chemistry laboratory to purify and biofunctionalize CNTs. The preparation of CNTs modified with metallic nanoparticles, especially gold, is also described since biomolecules can bind and self-organize on the surfaces of such metal-decorated CNTs.