Proposed Factor Structure of the Geriatric Depression Scale

Javaid Sheikh, Jerome A. Yesavage, John O. Brooks, Leah Friedman, Peter Gratzinger, Robert D. Hill, Anastasia Zadeik, Thomas Crook

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174 Citations (Scopus)


The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is commonly used to measure depression in the elderly. However, there have been no reports of the underlying structure of the GDS. To this end, the GDS was administered to 326 community-dwelling elderly subjects, and the data were subjected to a factor analysis. A five-factor solution was selected and, after a varimax rotation, the factors that emerged could be described as: (1) sad mood, (2) lack of energy, (3) positive mood, (4) agitation, and (5) social withdrawal. This solution accounted for 42.9% of the variance. Knowledge of the factor structure should aid both clinicians and researchers in the interpretation of responses on the GDS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-28
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Gerontology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Ageing
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Sheikh, J., Yesavage, J. A., Brooks, J. O., Friedman, L., Gratzinger, P., Hill, R. D., Zadeik, A., & Crook, T. (1991). Proposed Factor Structure of the Geriatric Depression Scale. International Psychogeriatrics, 3(1), 23-28.