Progress and prospects: Gene therapy for performance and appearance enhancement

M. Kiuru, Ronald Crystal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

11 Citations (Scopus)


While medical therapies aim at reversing, reducing or eliminating diseases, the goal of enhancements is to improve performance or appearance beyond normal levels. Distinction between the two interventions is not always clear as they often present as a continuum. Gene therapy typically aims at treating or preventing disease, but the technology can theoretically be employed for enhancement. Some of the gene therapy enhancement strategies include improving performance by increasing muscle mass, endurance, memory, and cognition and bettering appearance by controlling weight, height and hair growth. In addition to the technical challenges of making enhancement strategies safe and effective, genetic enhancement presents significant ethical/societal questions that must be addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-337
Number of pages9
JournalGene Therapy
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2008
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

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