Prevalence and risk factors for painful diabetic neuropathy in secondary healthcare in Qatar

Georgios Ponirakis, Tarik Elhadd, Subitha Chinnaiyan, Zeinab Dabbous, Mashhood Siddiqui, Hamad Al-muhannadi, Ioannis Petropoulos, Adnan Khan, Khaled A.E. Ashawesh, Khaled M.O. Dukhan, Ziyad R. Mahfoud, Christopher Murgatroyd, Mark Slevin, Rayaz A. Malik

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Aims/Introduction: Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN) has a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. The prevalence of PDPN in the Middle East and North Africa region has been reported to be almost double that of populations in the UK. We sought to determine the prevalence of PDPN and its associated factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending secondary care in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 1,095 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending Qatar's two national diabetes centers. PDPN and impaired vibration perception on the pulp of the large toes were assessed using the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 questionnaire with a cut-off ≥4 and the neurothesiometer with a cut-off ≥15 V, respectively. Results: The prevalence of PDPN was 34.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 31.7–37.3), but 80% of these patients had not previously been diagnosed or treated for this condition. Arabs had a higher prevalence of PDPN compared with South Asians (P < 0.05). PDPN was associated with impaired vibration perception adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.42 (95% CI 2.92–6.70), smoking AOR 2.43 (95% CI 1.43–4.15), obesity AOR 1.74 (95% CI 1.13–2.66), being female AOR 1.65 (95% CI: 1.03–2.64) and duration of diabetes AOR 1.08 (95% CI 1.05–1.11). Age, poor glycemic control, hypertension, physical activity and proteinuria showed no association with PDPN. Conclusions: PDPN occurs in one-third of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending secondary care in Qatar, but the majority have not been diagnosed. Arabs are at higher risk for PDPN. Impaired vibration perception, obesity and smoking are associated with PDPN in Qatar.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1558-1564
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Diabetes Investigation
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019



  • Obesity
  • Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Ponirakis, G., Elhadd, T., Chinnaiyan, S., Dabbous, Z., Siddiqui, M., Al-muhannadi, H., Petropoulos, I., Khan, A., Ashawesh, K. A. E., Dukhan, K. M. O., Mahfoud, Z. R., Murgatroyd, C., Slevin, M., & Malik, R. A. (2019). Prevalence and risk factors for painful diabetic neuropathy in secondary healthcare in Qatar. Journal of Diabetes Investigation, 10(6), 1558-1564.