Photodynamic therapy based on graphene and MXene in cancer theranostics

Arianna Gazzi, Laura Fusco, Anooshay Khan, Davide Bedognetti, Barbara Zavan, Flavia Vitale, Acelya Yilmazer, Lucia Gemma Delogu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Therefore, the development of new advanced and targeted strategies in cancer research for early diagnosis and treatment has become essential to improve diagnosis outcomes and reduce therapy side effects. Graphene and more recently, MXene, are the main representatives of the family of two-dimensional (2D) materials and are widely studied as multimodal nanoplatforms for cancer diagnostics and treatment, in particular leveraging their potentialities as photodynamic therapeutic agents. Indeed, due to their irreplaceable physicochemical properties, they are virtuous allies for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in combination with bioimaging, photothermal therapy, as well as drug and gene delivery. In this review, the rapidly progressing literature related to the use of these promising 2D materials for cancer theranostics is described in detail, highlighting all their possible future advances in PDT.

Original languageEnglish
Article number295
JournalFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Volume7
Issue numberOCT
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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Photodynamic therapy
Graphite
Photochemotherapy
Graphene
Drug therapy
Gene therapy
Neoplasms
Therapeutics
Early Detection of Cancer
Cause of Death
Theranostic Nanomedicine
Research
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Genes
metsulfuron methyl

Keywords

  • Graphene
  • MXene
  • Nanomedicine
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Theranostics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Histology
  • Biomedical Engineering

Cite this

Photodynamic therapy based on graphene and MXene in cancer theranostics. / Gazzi, Arianna; Fusco, Laura; Khan, Anooshay; Bedognetti, Davide; Zavan, Barbara; Vitale, Flavia; Yilmazer, Acelya; Delogu, Lucia Gemma.

In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Vol. 7, No. OCT, 295, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Gazzi, Arianna ; Fusco, Laura ; Khan, Anooshay ; Bedognetti, Davide ; Zavan, Barbara ; Vitale, Flavia ; Yilmazer, Acelya ; Delogu, Lucia Gemma. / Photodynamic therapy based on graphene and MXene in cancer theranostics. In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. 2019 ; Vol. 7, No. OCT.
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