PD-L1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells Is Epigenetically Regulated through Posttranslational Histone Modifications

Pramod Darvin, Varun Nair, Eyad Elkord

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Tumor progression through immune evasion is a major challenge in cancer therapy. Recent studies revealed that enhanced PD-L1 expression in cancer stem cells is linked to immune evasion. Understanding the mechanisms behind this PD-L1 overexpression in cancer stem cells is critical for developing more effective strategies for preventing immune evasion and increasing the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Tumorsphere formation in breast cancer cells enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is evident by increased expression of mesenchymal markers. In this study, we analyzed CpG methylation of PD-L1 promoter in MCF-7 and BT-549 breast cancer cells and tumorspheres derived from them. PD-L1 promoter was significantly hypomethylated in MCF-7 tumorspheres, but not from BT-549 tumorspheres, compared with their cell line counterparts. The active demethylation of PD-L1 promoter was confirmed by the increase in the distribution of 5hmC and decrease in 5mC levels and the upregulation of TET3 and downregulation of DNMTs enzymes in MCF-7 tumorspheres, compared with the cell line. Additionally, we checked the distribution of repressive histones H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and active histone H3K4me3 in the PD-L1 promoter. We found that distribution of repressive histones to the PD-L1 promoter was lower in tumorspheres, compared with cell lines. Moreover, an overexpression of histone acetylation enzymes was observed in tumorspheres suggesting the active involvement of histone modifications in EMT-induced PD-L1 expression. In summary, EMT-associated overexpression of PD-L1 was partially independent of promoter CpG methylation and more likely to be dependent on posttranslational histone modifications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3958908
JournalJournal of Oncology
Volume2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Histone Code
Neoplastic Stem Cells
Post Translational Protein Processing
Immune Evasion
Histones
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
Breast Neoplasms
Cell Line
Methylation
Enzymes
Acetylation
Neoplasms
Up-Regulation
Down-Regulation
Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology

Cite this

@article{9f3350c2128642c8ac0daffcdac003a9,
title = "PD-L1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells Is Epigenetically Regulated through Posttranslational Histone Modifications",
abstract = "Tumor progression through immune evasion is a major challenge in cancer therapy. Recent studies revealed that enhanced PD-L1 expression in cancer stem cells is linked to immune evasion. Understanding the mechanisms behind this PD-L1 overexpression in cancer stem cells is critical for developing more effective strategies for preventing immune evasion and increasing the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Tumorsphere formation in breast cancer cells enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is evident by increased expression of mesenchymal markers. In this study, we analyzed CpG methylation of PD-L1 promoter in MCF-7 and BT-549 breast cancer cells and tumorspheres derived from them. PD-L1 promoter was significantly hypomethylated in MCF-7 tumorspheres, but not from BT-549 tumorspheres, compared with their cell line counterparts. The active demethylation of PD-L1 promoter was confirmed by the increase in the distribution of 5hmC and decrease in 5mC levels and the upregulation of TET3 and downregulation of DNMTs enzymes in MCF-7 tumorspheres, compared with the cell line. Additionally, we checked the distribution of repressive histones H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and active histone H3K4me3 in the PD-L1 promoter. We found that distribution of repressive histones to the PD-L1 promoter was lower in tumorspheres, compared with cell lines. Moreover, an overexpression of histone acetylation enzymes was observed in tumorspheres suggesting the active involvement of histone modifications in EMT-induced PD-L1 expression. In summary, EMT-associated overexpression of PD-L1 was partially independent of promoter CpG methylation and more likely to be dependent on posttranslational histone modifications.",
author = "Pramod Darvin and Varun Nair and Eyad Elkord",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1155/2019/3958908",
language = "English",
volume = "2019",
journal = "Journal of Oncology",
issn = "1687-8450",
publisher = "Hindawi Publishing Corporation",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - PD-L1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells Is Epigenetically Regulated through Posttranslational Histone Modifications

AU - Darvin, Pramod

AU - Nair, Varun

AU - Elkord, Eyad

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Tumor progression through immune evasion is a major challenge in cancer therapy. Recent studies revealed that enhanced PD-L1 expression in cancer stem cells is linked to immune evasion. Understanding the mechanisms behind this PD-L1 overexpression in cancer stem cells is critical for developing more effective strategies for preventing immune evasion and increasing the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Tumorsphere formation in breast cancer cells enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is evident by increased expression of mesenchymal markers. In this study, we analyzed CpG methylation of PD-L1 promoter in MCF-7 and BT-549 breast cancer cells and tumorspheres derived from them. PD-L1 promoter was significantly hypomethylated in MCF-7 tumorspheres, but not from BT-549 tumorspheres, compared with their cell line counterparts. The active demethylation of PD-L1 promoter was confirmed by the increase in the distribution of 5hmC and decrease in 5mC levels and the upregulation of TET3 and downregulation of DNMTs enzymes in MCF-7 tumorspheres, compared with the cell line. Additionally, we checked the distribution of repressive histones H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and active histone H3K4me3 in the PD-L1 promoter. We found that distribution of repressive histones to the PD-L1 promoter was lower in tumorspheres, compared with cell lines. Moreover, an overexpression of histone acetylation enzymes was observed in tumorspheres suggesting the active involvement of histone modifications in EMT-induced PD-L1 expression. In summary, EMT-associated overexpression of PD-L1 was partially independent of promoter CpG methylation and more likely to be dependent on posttranslational histone modifications.

AB - Tumor progression through immune evasion is a major challenge in cancer therapy. Recent studies revealed that enhanced PD-L1 expression in cancer stem cells is linked to immune evasion. Understanding the mechanisms behind this PD-L1 overexpression in cancer stem cells is critical for developing more effective strategies for preventing immune evasion and increasing the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Tumorsphere formation in breast cancer cells enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is evident by increased expression of mesenchymal markers. In this study, we analyzed CpG methylation of PD-L1 promoter in MCF-7 and BT-549 breast cancer cells and tumorspheres derived from them. PD-L1 promoter was significantly hypomethylated in MCF-7 tumorspheres, but not from BT-549 tumorspheres, compared with their cell line counterparts. The active demethylation of PD-L1 promoter was confirmed by the increase in the distribution of 5hmC and decrease in 5mC levels and the upregulation of TET3 and downregulation of DNMTs enzymes in MCF-7 tumorspheres, compared with the cell line. Additionally, we checked the distribution of repressive histones H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and active histone H3K4me3 in the PD-L1 promoter. We found that distribution of repressive histones to the PD-L1 promoter was lower in tumorspheres, compared with cell lines. Moreover, an overexpression of histone acetylation enzymes was observed in tumorspheres suggesting the active involvement of histone modifications in EMT-induced PD-L1 expression. In summary, EMT-associated overexpression of PD-L1 was partially independent of promoter CpG methylation and more likely to be dependent on posttranslational histone modifications.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85062615829&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85062615829&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1155/2019/3958908

DO - 10.1155/2019/3958908

M3 - Article

VL - 2019

JO - Journal of Oncology

JF - Journal of Oncology

SN - 1687-8450

M1 - 3958908

ER -