Pathway to the galactic distribution of planets

Combined Spitzer and ground-based Microlens parallax measurements of 21 single-lens events

S. Calchi Novati, A. Gould, A. Udalski, J. W. Menzies, I. A. Bond, Y. Shvartzvald, R. A. Street, M. Hundertmark, C. A. Beichman, J. C. Yee, S. Carey, R. Poleski, J. Skowron, S. Kozłowski, P. Mróz, P. Pietrukowicz, G. Pietrzyński, M. K. Szymański, I. Soszyński, K. Ulaczyk & 65 others Wyrzykowski, M. Albrow, J. P. Beaulieu, J. A R Caldwell, A. Cassan, C. Coutures, C. Danielski, D. Dominis Prester, J. Donatowicz, K. Lončarić, A. McDougall, J. C. Morales, C. Ranc, W. Zhu, F. Abe, R. K. Barry, D. P. Bennett, A. Bhattacharya, D. Fukunaga, K. Inayama, N. Koshimoto, S. Namba, T. Sumi, D. Suzuki, P. J. Tristram, Y. Wakiyama, A. Yonehara, D. Maoz, S. Kaspi, M. Friedmann, E. Bachelet, R. Figuera Jaimes, D. M. Bramich, Y. Tsapras, K. Horne, C. Snodgrass, J. Wambsganss, I. A. Steele, N. Kains, V. Bozza, M. Dominik, U. G. JØrgensen, Khalid Al-Subai, S. Ciceri, G. D'Ago, T. HaugbØlle, F. V. Hessman, T. C. Hinse, D. Juncher, H. Korhonen, L. Mancini, A. Popovas, M. Rabus, S. Rahvar, G. Scarpetta, R. W. Schmidt, J. Skottfelt, J. Southworth, D. Starkey, J. Surdej, O. Wertz, M. Zarucki, B. S. Gaudi, R. W. Pogge, D. L. Depoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was ∼1 AU west of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle, it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume804
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015

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parallax
planets
planet
lenses
galactic bulge
sun
kinematics
projection
galaxies
estimates
distribution
experiment

Keywords

  • gravitational lensing: micro
  • planetary systems
  • planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

Pathway to the galactic distribution of planets : Combined Spitzer and ground-based Microlens parallax measurements of 21 single-lens events. / Novati, S. Calchi; Gould, A.; Udalski, A.; Menzies, J. W.; Bond, I. A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Street, R. A.; Hundertmark, M.; Beichman, C. A.; Yee, J. C.; Carey, S.; Poleski, R.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski; Albrow, M.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Caldwell, J. A R; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Danielski, C.; Prester, D. Dominis; Donatowicz, J.; Lončarić, K.; McDougall, A.; Morales, J. C.; Ranc, C.; Zhu, W.; Abe, F.; Barry, R. K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fukunaga, D.; Inayama, K.; Koshimoto, N.; Namba, S.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yonehara, A.; Maoz, D.; Kaspi, S.; Friedmann, M.; Bachelet, E.; Jaimes, R. Figuera; Bramich, D. M.; Tsapras, Y.; Horne, K.; Snodgrass, C.; Wambsganss, J.; Steele, I. A.; Kains, N.; Bozza, V.; Dominik, M.; JØrgensen, U. G.; Al-Subai, Khalid; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; HaugbØlle, T.; Hessman, F. V.; Hinse, T. C.; Juncher, D.; Korhonen, H.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Skottfelt, J.; Southworth, J.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Wertz, O.; Zarucki, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Depoy, D. L.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 804, No. 1, 20, 01.05.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Novati, SC, Gould, A, Udalski, A, Menzies, JW, Bond, IA, Shvartzvald, Y, Street, RA, Hundertmark, M, Beichman, CA, Yee, JC, Carey, S, Poleski, R, Skowron, J, Kozłowski, S, Mróz, P, Pietrukowicz, P, Pietrzyński, G, Szymański, MK, Soszyński, I, Ulaczyk, K, Wyrzykowski, Albrow, M, Beaulieu, JP, Caldwell, JAR, Cassan, A, Coutures, C, Danielski, C, Prester, DD, Donatowicz, J, Lončarić, K, McDougall, A, Morales, JC, Ranc, C, Zhu, W, Abe, F, Barry, RK, Bennett, DP, Bhattacharya, A, Fukunaga, D, Inayama, K, Koshimoto, N, Namba, S, Sumi, T, Suzuki, D, Tristram, PJ, Wakiyama, Y, Yonehara, A, Maoz, D, Kaspi, S, Friedmann, M, Bachelet, E, Jaimes, RF, Bramich, DM, Tsapras, Y, Horne, K, Snodgrass, C, Wambsganss, J, Steele, IA, Kains, N, Bozza, V, Dominik, M, JØrgensen, UG, Al-Subai, K, Ciceri, S, D'Ago, G, HaugbØlle, T, Hessman, FV, Hinse, TC, Juncher, D, Korhonen, H, Mancini, L, Popovas, A, Rabus, M, Rahvar, S, Scarpetta, G, Schmidt, RW, Skottfelt, J, Southworth, J, Starkey, D, Surdej, J, Wertz, O, Zarucki, M, Gaudi, BS, Pogge, RW & Depoy, DL 2015, 'Pathway to the galactic distribution of planets: Combined Spitzer and ground-based Microlens parallax measurements of 21 single-lens events', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 804, no. 1, 20. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/804/1/20
Novati, S. Calchi ; Gould, A. ; Udalski, A. ; Menzies, J. W. ; Bond, I. A. ; Shvartzvald, Y. ; Street, R. A. ; Hundertmark, M. ; Beichman, C. A. ; Yee, J. C. ; Carey, S. ; Poleski, R. ; Skowron, J. ; Kozłowski, S. ; Mróz, P. ; Pietrukowicz, P. ; Pietrzyński, G. ; Szymański, M. K. ; Soszyński, I. ; Ulaczyk, K. ; Wyrzykowski ; Albrow, M. ; Beaulieu, J. P. ; Caldwell, J. A R ; Cassan, A. ; Coutures, C. ; Danielski, C. ; Prester, D. Dominis ; Donatowicz, J. ; Lončarić, K. ; McDougall, A. ; Morales, J. C. ; Ranc, C. ; Zhu, W. ; Abe, F. ; Barry, R. K. ; Bennett, D. P. ; Bhattacharya, A. ; Fukunaga, D. ; Inayama, K. ; Koshimoto, N. ; Namba, S. ; Sumi, T. ; Suzuki, D. ; Tristram, P. J. ; Wakiyama, Y. ; Yonehara, A. ; Maoz, D. ; Kaspi, S. ; Friedmann, M. ; Bachelet, E. ; Jaimes, R. Figuera ; Bramich, D. M. ; Tsapras, Y. ; Horne, K. ; Snodgrass, C. ; Wambsganss, J. ; Steele, I. A. ; Kains, N. ; Bozza, V. ; Dominik, M. ; JØrgensen, U. G. ; Al-Subai, Khalid ; Ciceri, S. ; D'Ago, G. ; HaugbØlle, T. ; Hessman, F. V. ; Hinse, T. C. ; Juncher, D. ; Korhonen, H. ; Mancini, L. ; Popovas, A. ; Rabus, M. ; Rahvar, S. ; Scarpetta, G. ; Schmidt, R. W. ; Skottfelt, J. ; Southworth, J. ; Starkey, D. ; Surdej, J. ; Wertz, O. ; Zarucki, M. ; Gaudi, B. S. ; Pogge, R. W. ; Depoy, D. L. / Pathway to the galactic distribution of planets : Combined Spitzer and ground-based Microlens parallax measurements of 21 single-lens events. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 804, No. 1.
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abstract = "We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was ∼1 AU west of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle, it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Pathway to the galactic distribution of planets

T2 - Combined Spitzer and ground-based Microlens parallax measurements of 21 single-lens events

AU - Novati, S. Calchi

AU - Gould, A.

AU - Udalski, A.

AU - Menzies, J. W.

AU - Bond, I. A.

AU - Shvartzvald, Y.

AU - Street, R. A.

AU - Hundertmark, M.

AU - Beichman, C. A.

AU - Yee, J. C.

AU - Carey, S.

AU - Poleski, R.

AU - Skowron, J.

AU - Kozłowski, S.

AU - Mróz, P.

AU - Pietrukowicz, P.

AU - Pietrzyński, G.

AU - Szymański, M. K.

AU - Soszyński, I.

AU - Ulaczyk, K.

AU - Wyrzykowski,

AU - Albrow, M.

AU - Beaulieu, J. P.

AU - Caldwell, J. A R

AU - Cassan, A.

AU - Coutures, C.

AU - Danielski, C.

AU - Prester, D. Dominis

AU - Donatowicz, J.

AU - Lončarić, K.

AU - McDougall, A.

AU - Morales, J. C.

AU - Ranc, C.

AU - Zhu, W.

AU - Abe, F.

AU - Barry, R. K.

AU - Bennett, D. P.

AU - Bhattacharya, A.

AU - Fukunaga, D.

AU - Inayama, K.

AU - Koshimoto, N.

AU - Namba, S.

AU - Sumi, T.

AU - Suzuki, D.

AU - Tristram, P. J.

AU - Wakiyama, Y.

AU - Yonehara, A.

AU - Maoz, D.

AU - Kaspi, S.

AU - Friedmann, M.

AU - Bachelet, E.

AU - Jaimes, R. Figuera

AU - Bramich, D. M.

AU - Tsapras, Y.

AU - Horne, K.

AU - Snodgrass, C.

AU - Wambsganss, J.

AU - Steele, I. A.

AU - Kains, N.

AU - Bozza, V.

AU - Dominik, M.

AU - JØrgensen, U. G.

AU - Al-Subai, Khalid

AU - Ciceri, S.

AU - D'Ago, G.

AU - HaugbØlle, T.

AU - Hessman, F. V.

AU - Hinse, T. C.

AU - Juncher, D.

AU - Korhonen, H.

AU - Mancini, L.

AU - Popovas, A.

AU - Rabus, M.

AU - Rahvar, S.

AU - Scarpetta, G.

AU - Schmidt, R. W.

AU - Skottfelt, J.

AU - Southworth, J.

AU - Starkey, D.

AU - Surdej, J.

AU - Wertz, O.

AU - Zarucki, M.

AU - Gaudi, B. S.

AU - Pogge, R. W.

AU - Depoy, D. L.

PY - 2015/5/1

Y1 - 2015/5/1

N2 - We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was ∼1 AU west of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle, it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated.

AB - We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was ∼1 AU west of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle, it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated.

KW - gravitational lensing: micro

KW - planetary systems

KW - planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability

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U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/804/1/20

DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/804/1/20

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