Overview of melanoma vaccines and promising approaches

Monica C. Panelli, Ena Wang, Vladia Monsurrò, Ping Jin, Zavaglia Katia, Kina Smith, Yvonne Ngalame, Francesco M. Marincola

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Citations (Scopus)


It is difficult to envision anything better than melanoma vaccines to exemplify the effectiveness of modern biotechnology in developing biologically rational therapeutics. Melanoma vaccines can reproducibly induce cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses better than any other anticancer therapy. Anticancer vaccines have been labeled by some as ineffective for the simple reason that they only rarely lead to cancer regression. This oxymoron stems from the naïve expectation that CTLs are all that is needed to reject cancer. Little is known about requirements for CTL localization and effector function within the tumor microenvironment. In the future, more attention should be given to events downstream of immunization (afferent arm of immune response) to identify combination therapies likely to facilitate localization and activation of CTL at the receiving end (efferent arm).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)414-420
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Oncology Reports
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2004
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Panelli, M. C., Wang, E., Monsurrò, V., Jin, P., Katia, Z., Smith, K., Ngalame, Y., & Marincola, F. M. (2004). Overview of melanoma vaccines and promising approaches. Current Oncology Reports, 6(5), 414-420.