Optical properties of deep glacial ice at the South Pole

M. Ackermann, J. Ahrens, X. Bai, M. Bartelt, S. W. Barwick, R. C. Bay, T. Becka, J. K. Becker, K. H. Becker, P. Berghaus, E. Bernardini, D. Bertrand, D. J. Boersma, S. Böser, O. Botner, A. Bouchta, Othmane Bouhali, C. Burgess, T. Burgess, T. Castermans & 97 others D. Chirkin, B. Collin, J. Conrad, J. Cooley, D. F. Cowen, A. Davour, C. De Clercq, C. P. de los Heros, P. Desiati, T. DeYoung, P. Ekström, T. Feser, T. K. Gaisser, R. Ganugapati, H. Geenen, L. Gerhardt, A. Goldschmidt, A. Groß, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, D. H. Hardtke, T. Harenberg, T. Hauschildt, K. Helbing, M. Hellwig, P. Herquet, G. C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Hubert, B. Hughey, P. O. Hulth, K. Hultqvist, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, K. H. Kampert, A. Karle, M. Kestel, G. Kohnen, L. Köpke, M. Kowalski, K. Kuehn, R. Lang, H. Leich, M. Leuthold, I. Liubarsky, J. Lundberg, J. Madsen, P. Marciniewski, H. S. Matis, C. P. McParland, T. Messarius, Y. Minaeva, P. Miočinović, R. Morse, K. Münich, R. Nahnhauer, J. W. Nam, T. Neunhöffer, P. Niessen, D. R. Nygren, P. Olbrechts, A. C. Pohl, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, K. Rawlins, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Ribordy, S. Richter, J. Rodríguez Martino, H. G. Sander, S. Schlenstedt, D. Schneider, R. Schwarz, A. Silvestri, M. Solarz, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, D. Steele, P. Steffen, R. G. Stokstad, K. H. Sulanke, I. Taboada, O. Tarasova, L. Thollander, S. Tilav, W. Wagner, C. Walck, M. Walter, Y. R. Wang, C. H. Wiebusch, R. Wischnewski, H. Wissing, Kurt Woschnagg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

123 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have remotely mapped optical scattering and absorption in glacial ice at the South Pole for wavelengths between 313 and 560 nm and depths between 1100 and 2350 m. We used pulsed and continuous light sources embedded with the AMANDA neutrino telescope, an array of more than six hundred photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the ice. At depths greater than 1300 m, both the scattering coefficient and absorptivity follow vertical variations in concentration of dust impurities, which are seen in ice cores from other Antarctic sites and which track climatological changes. The scattering coefficient varies by a factor of seven, and absorptivity (for wavelengths less than ∼450 nm) varies by a factor of three in the depth range between 1300 and 2300 m, where four dust peaks due to stadials in the late Pleistocene have been identified. In our absorption data, we also identify a broad peak due to the Last Glacial Maximum around 1300 m. In the scattering data, this peak is partially masked by scattering on residual air bubbles, whose contribution dominates the scattering coefficient in shallower ice but vanishes at ∼1350 m where all bubbles have converted to nonscattering air hydrates. The wavelength dependence of scattering by dust is described by a power law with exponent -0.90 ± 0.03, independent of depth. The wavelength dependence of absorptivity in the studied wavelength range is described by the sum of two components: a power law due to absorption by dust, with exponent -1.08 ± 0.01 and a normalization proportional to dust concentration that varies with depth; and a rising exponential due to intrinsic ice absorption which dominates at wavelengths greater than ∼500 nm.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberD13203
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
Volume111
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jul 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

optical properties
Ice
glaciers
optical property
wavelengths
Poles
ice
dust
poles
Optical properties
scattering
Scattering
Dust
wavelength
scattering coefficients
Wavelength
absorptivity
bubbles
exponents
power law

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Oceanography
  • Forestry
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Ackermann, M., Ahrens, J., Bai, X., Bartelt, M., Barwick, S. W., Bay, R. C., ... Woschnagg, K. (2006). Optical properties of deep glacial ice at the South Pole. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 111(13), [D13203]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006687

Optical properties of deep glacial ice at the South Pole. / Ackermann, M.; Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Bartelt, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R. C.; Becka, T.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Berghaus, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Boersma, D. J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, Othmane; Burgess, C.; Burgess, T.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Collin, B.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D. F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; de los Heros, C. P.; Desiati, P.; DeYoung, T.; Ekström, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Ganugapati, R.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Groß, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, D. H.; Harenberg, T.; Hauschildt, T.; Helbing, K.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G. C.; Hodges, J.; Hubert, D.; Hughey, B.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Kampert, K. H.; Karle, A.; Kestel, M.; Kohnen, G.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kuehn, K.; Lang, R.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Liubarsky, I.; Lundberg, J.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H. S.; McParland, C. P.; Messarius, T.; Minaeva, Y.; Miočinović, P.; Morse, R.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Neunhöffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Olbrechts, P.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodríguez Martino, J.; Sander, H. G.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R. G.; Sulanke, K. H.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Walter, M.; Wang, Y. R.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, Kurt.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, Vol. 111, No. 13, D13203, 16.07.2006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ackermann, M, Ahrens, J, Bai, X, Bartelt, M, Barwick, SW, Bay, RC, Becka, T, Becker, JK, Becker, KH, Berghaus, P, Bernardini, E, Bertrand, D, Boersma, DJ, Böser, S, Botner, O, Bouchta, A, Bouhali, O, Burgess, C, Burgess, T, Castermans, T, Chirkin, D, Collin, B, Conrad, J, Cooley, J, Cowen, DF, Davour, A, De Clercq, C, de los Heros, CP, Desiati, P, DeYoung, T, Ekström, P, Feser, T, Gaisser, TK, Ganugapati, R, Geenen, H, Gerhardt, L, Goldschmidt, A, Groß, A, Hallgren, A, Halzen, F, Hanson, K, Hardtke, DH, Harenberg, T, Hauschildt, T, Helbing, K, Hellwig, M, Herquet, P, Hill, GC, Hodges, J, Hubert, D, Hughey, B, Hulth, PO, Hultqvist, K, Hundertmark, S, Jacobsen, J, Kampert, KH, Karle, A, Kestel, M, Kohnen, G, Köpke, L, Kowalski, M, Kuehn, K, Lang, R, Leich, H, Leuthold, M, Liubarsky, I, Lundberg, J, Madsen, J, Marciniewski, P, Matis, HS, McParland, CP, Messarius, T, Minaeva, Y, Miočinović, P, Morse, R, Münich, K, Nahnhauer, R, Nam, JW, Neunhöffer, T, Niessen, P, Nygren, DR, Olbrechts, P, Pohl, AC, Porrata, R, Price, PB, Przybylski, GT, Rawlins, K, Resconi, E, Rhode, W, Ribordy, M, Richter, S, Rodríguez Martino, J, Sander, HG, Schlenstedt, S, Schneider, D, Schwarz, R, Silvestri, A, Solarz, M, Spiczak, GM, Spiering, C, Stamatikos, M, Steele, D, Steffen, P, Stokstad, RG, Sulanke, KH, Taboada, I, Tarasova, O, Thollander, L, Tilav, S, Wagner, W, Walck, C, Walter, M, Wang, YR, Wiebusch, CH, Wischnewski, R, Wissing, H & Woschnagg, K 2006, 'Optical properties of deep glacial ice at the South Pole', Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 111, no. 13, D13203. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006687
Ackermann M, Ahrens J, Bai X, Bartelt M, Barwick SW, Bay RC et al. Optical properties of deep glacial ice at the South Pole. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres. 2006 Jul 16;111(13). D13203. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006687
Ackermann, M. ; Ahrens, J. ; Bai, X. ; Bartelt, M. ; Barwick, S. W. ; Bay, R. C. ; Becka, T. ; Becker, J. K. ; Becker, K. H. ; Berghaus, P. ; Bernardini, E. ; Bertrand, D. ; Boersma, D. J. ; Böser, S. ; Botner, O. ; Bouchta, A. ; Bouhali, Othmane ; Burgess, C. ; Burgess, T. ; Castermans, T. ; Chirkin, D. ; Collin, B. ; Conrad, J. ; Cooley, J. ; Cowen, D. F. ; Davour, A. ; De Clercq, C. ; de los Heros, C. P. ; Desiati, P. ; DeYoung, T. ; Ekström, P. ; Feser, T. ; Gaisser, T. K. ; Ganugapati, R. ; Geenen, H. ; Gerhardt, L. ; Goldschmidt, A. ; Groß, A. ; Hallgren, A. ; Halzen, F. ; Hanson, K. ; Hardtke, D. H. ; Harenberg, T. ; Hauschildt, T. ; Helbing, K. ; Hellwig, M. ; Herquet, P. ; Hill, G. C. ; Hodges, J. ; Hubert, D. ; Hughey, B. ; Hulth, P. O. ; Hultqvist, K. ; Hundertmark, S. ; Jacobsen, J. ; Kampert, K. H. ; Karle, A. ; Kestel, M. ; Kohnen, G. ; Köpke, L. ; Kowalski, M. ; Kuehn, K. ; Lang, R. ; Leich, H. ; Leuthold, M. ; Liubarsky, I. ; Lundberg, J. ; Madsen, J. ; Marciniewski, P. ; Matis, H. S. ; McParland, C. P. ; Messarius, T. ; Minaeva, Y. ; Miočinović, P. ; Morse, R. ; Münich, K. ; Nahnhauer, R. ; Nam, J. W. ; Neunhöffer, T. ; Niessen, P. ; Nygren, D. R. ; Olbrechts, P. ; Pohl, A. C. ; Porrata, R. ; Price, P. B. ; Przybylski, G. T. ; Rawlins, K. ; Resconi, E. ; Rhode, W. ; Ribordy, M. ; Richter, S. ; Rodríguez Martino, J. ; Sander, H. G. ; Schlenstedt, S. ; Schneider, D. ; Schwarz, R. ; Silvestri, A. ; Solarz, M. ; Spiczak, G. M. ; Spiering, C. ; Stamatikos, M. ; Steele, D. ; Steffen, P. ; Stokstad, R. G. ; Sulanke, K. H. ; Taboada, I. ; Tarasova, O. ; Thollander, L. ; Tilav, S. ; Wagner, W. ; Walck, C. ; Walter, M. ; Wang, Y. R. ; Wiebusch, C. H. ; Wischnewski, R. ; Wissing, H. ; Woschnagg, Kurt. / Optical properties of deep glacial ice at the South Pole. In: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres. 2006 ; Vol. 111, No. 13.
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abstract = "We have remotely mapped optical scattering and absorption in glacial ice at the South Pole for wavelengths between 313 and 560 nm and depths between 1100 and 2350 m. We used pulsed and continuous light sources embedded with the AMANDA neutrino telescope, an array of more than six hundred photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the ice. At depths greater than 1300 m, both the scattering coefficient and absorptivity follow vertical variations in concentration of dust impurities, which are seen in ice cores from other Antarctic sites and which track climatological changes. The scattering coefficient varies by a factor of seven, and absorptivity (for wavelengths less than ∼450 nm) varies by a factor of three in the depth range between 1300 and 2300 m, where four dust peaks due to stadials in the late Pleistocene have been identified. In our absorption data, we also identify a broad peak due to the Last Glacial Maximum around 1300 m. In the scattering data, this peak is partially masked by scattering on residual air bubbles, whose contribution dominates the scattering coefficient in shallower ice but vanishes at ∼1350 m where all bubbles have converted to nonscattering air hydrates. The wavelength dependence of scattering by dust is described by a power law with exponent -0.90 ± 0.03, independent of depth. The wavelength dependence of absorptivity in the studied wavelength range is described by the sum of two components: a power law due to absorption by dust, with exponent -1.08 ± 0.01 and a normalization proportional to dust concentration that varies with depth; and a rising exponential due to intrinsic ice absorption which dominates at wavelengths greater than ∼500 nm.",
author = "M. Ackermann and J. Ahrens and X. Bai and M. Bartelt and Barwick, {S. W.} and Bay, {R. C.} and T. Becka and Becker, {J. K.} and Becker, {K. H.} and P. Berghaus and E. Bernardini and D. Bertrand and Boersma, {D. J.} and S. B{\"o}ser and O. Botner and A. Bouchta and Othmane Bouhali and C. Burgess and T. Burgess and T. Castermans and D. Chirkin and B. Collin and J. Conrad and J. Cooley and Cowen, {D. F.} and A. Davour and {De Clercq}, C. and {de los Heros}, {C. P.} and P. Desiati and T. DeYoung and P. Ekstr{\"o}m and T. Feser and Gaisser, {T. K.} and R. Ganugapati and H. Geenen and L. Gerhardt and A. Goldschmidt and A. Gro{\ss} and A. Hallgren and F. Halzen and K. Hanson and Hardtke, {D. H.} and T. Harenberg and T. Hauschildt and K. Helbing and M. Hellwig and P. Herquet and Hill, {G. C.} and J. Hodges and D. Hubert and B. Hughey and Hulth, {P. O.} and K. Hultqvist and S. Hundertmark and J. Jacobsen and Kampert, {K. H.} and A. Karle and M. Kestel and G. Kohnen and L. K{\"o}pke and M. Kowalski and K. Kuehn and R. Lang and H. Leich and M. Leuthold and I. Liubarsky and J. Lundberg and J. Madsen and P. Marciniewski and Matis, {H. S.} and McParland, {C. P.} and T. Messarius and Y. Minaeva and P. Miočinović and R. Morse and K. M{\"u}nich and R. Nahnhauer and Nam, {J. W.} and T. Neunh{\"o}ffer and P. Niessen and Nygren, {D. R.} and P. Olbrechts and Pohl, {A. C.} and R. Porrata and Price, {P. B.} and Przybylski, {G. T.} and K. Rawlins and E. Resconi and W. Rhode and M. Ribordy and S. Richter and {Rodr{\'i}guez Martino}, J. and Sander, {H. G.} and S. Schlenstedt and D. Schneider and R. Schwarz and A. Silvestri and M. Solarz and Spiczak, {G. M.} and C. Spiering and M. Stamatikos and D. Steele and P. Steffen and Stokstad, {R. G.} and Sulanke, {K. H.} and I. Taboada and O. Tarasova and L. Thollander and S. Tilav and W. Wagner and C. Walck and M. Walter and Wang, {Y. R.} and Wiebusch, {C. H.} and R. Wischnewski and H. Wissing and Kurt Woschnagg",
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T1 - Optical properties of deep glacial ice at the South Pole

AU - Ackermann, M.

AU - Ahrens, J.

AU - Bai, X.

AU - Bartelt, M.

AU - Barwick, S. W.

AU - Bay, R. C.

AU - Becka, T.

AU - Becker, J. K.

AU - Becker, K. H.

AU - Berghaus, P.

AU - Bernardini, E.

AU - Bertrand, D.

AU - Boersma, D. J.

AU - Böser, S.

AU - Botner, O.

AU - Bouchta, A.

AU - Bouhali, Othmane

AU - Burgess, C.

AU - Burgess, T.

AU - Castermans, T.

AU - Chirkin, D.

AU - Collin, B.

AU - Conrad, J.

AU - Cooley, J.

AU - Cowen, D. F.

AU - Davour, A.

AU - De Clercq, C.

AU - de los Heros, C. P.

AU - Desiati, P.

AU - DeYoung, T.

AU - Ekström, P.

AU - Feser, T.

AU - Gaisser, T. K.

AU - Ganugapati, R.

AU - Geenen, H.

AU - Gerhardt, L.

AU - Goldschmidt, A.

AU - Groß, A.

AU - Hallgren, A.

AU - Halzen, F.

AU - Hanson, K.

AU - Hardtke, D. H.

AU - Harenberg, T.

AU - Hauschildt, T.

AU - Helbing, K.

AU - Hellwig, M.

AU - Herquet, P.

AU - Hill, G. C.

AU - Hodges, J.

AU - Hubert, D.

AU - Hughey, B.

AU - Hulth, P. O.

AU - Hultqvist, K.

AU - Hundertmark, S.

AU - Jacobsen, J.

AU - Kampert, K. H.

AU - Karle, A.

AU - Kestel, M.

AU - Kohnen, G.

AU - Köpke, L.

AU - Kowalski, M.

AU - Kuehn, K.

AU - Lang, R.

AU - Leich, H.

AU - Leuthold, M.

AU - Liubarsky, I.

AU - Lundberg, J.

AU - Madsen, J.

AU - Marciniewski, P.

AU - Matis, H. S.

AU - McParland, C. P.

AU - Messarius, T.

AU - Minaeva, Y.

AU - Miočinović, P.

AU - Morse, R.

AU - Münich, K.

AU - Nahnhauer, R.

AU - Nam, J. W.

AU - Neunhöffer, T.

AU - Niessen, P.

AU - Nygren, D. R.

AU - Olbrechts, P.

AU - Pohl, A. C.

AU - Porrata, R.

AU - Price, P. B.

AU - Przybylski, G. T.

AU - Rawlins, K.

AU - Resconi, E.

AU - Rhode, W.

AU - Ribordy, M.

AU - Richter, S.

AU - Rodríguez Martino, J.

AU - Sander, H. G.

AU - Schlenstedt, S.

AU - Schneider, D.

AU - Schwarz, R.

AU - Silvestri, A.

AU - Solarz, M.

AU - Spiczak, G. M.

AU - Spiering, C.

AU - Stamatikos, M.

AU - Steele, D.

AU - Steffen, P.

AU - Stokstad, R. G.

AU - Sulanke, K. H.

AU - Taboada, I.

AU - Tarasova, O.

AU - Thollander, L.

AU - Tilav, S.

AU - Wagner, W.

AU - Walck, C.

AU - Walter, M.

AU - Wang, Y. R.

AU - Wiebusch, C. H.

AU - Wischnewski, R.

AU - Wissing, H.

AU - Woschnagg, Kurt

PY - 2006/7/16

Y1 - 2006/7/16

N2 - We have remotely mapped optical scattering and absorption in glacial ice at the South Pole for wavelengths between 313 and 560 nm and depths between 1100 and 2350 m. We used pulsed and continuous light sources embedded with the AMANDA neutrino telescope, an array of more than six hundred photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the ice. At depths greater than 1300 m, both the scattering coefficient and absorptivity follow vertical variations in concentration of dust impurities, which are seen in ice cores from other Antarctic sites and which track climatological changes. The scattering coefficient varies by a factor of seven, and absorptivity (for wavelengths less than ∼450 nm) varies by a factor of three in the depth range between 1300 and 2300 m, where four dust peaks due to stadials in the late Pleistocene have been identified. In our absorption data, we also identify a broad peak due to the Last Glacial Maximum around 1300 m. In the scattering data, this peak is partially masked by scattering on residual air bubbles, whose contribution dominates the scattering coefficient in shallower ice but vanishes at ∼1350 m where all bubbles have converted to nonscattering air hydrates. The wavelength dependence of scattering by dust is described by a power law with exponent -0.90 ± 0.03, independent of depth. The wavelength dependence of absorptivity in the studied wavelength range is described by the sum of two components: a power law due to absorption by dust, with exponent -1.08 ± 0.01 and a normalization proportional to dust concentration that varies with depth; and a rising exponential due to intrinsic ice absorption which dominates at wavelengths greater than ∼500 nm.

AB - We have remotely mapped optical scattering and absorption in glacial ice at the South Pole for wavelengths between 313 and 560 nm and depths between 1100 and 2350 m. We used pulsed and continuous light sources embedded with the AMANDA neutrino telescope, an array of more than six hundred photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the ice. At depths greater than 1300 m, both the scattering coefficient and absorptivity follow vertical variations in concentration of dust impurities, which are seen in ice cores from other Antarctic sites and which track climatological changes. The scattering coefficient varies by a factor of seven, and absorptivity (for wavelengths less than ∼450 nm) varies by a factor of three in the depth range between 1300 and 2300 m, where four dust peaks due to stadials in the late Pleistocene have been identified. In our absorption data, we also identify a broad peak due to the Last Glacial Maximum around 1300 m. In the scattering data, this peak is partially masked by scattering on residual air bubbles, whose contribution dominates the scattering coefficient in shallower ice but vanishes at ∼1350 m where all bubbles have converted to nonscattering air hydrates. The wavelength dependence of scattering by dust is described by a power law with exponent -0.90 ± 0.03, independent of depth. The wavelength dependence of absorptivity in the studied wavelength range is described by the sum of two components: a power law due to absorption by dust, with exponent -1.08 ± 0.01 and a normalization proportional to dust concentration that varies with depth; and a rising exponential due to intrinsic ice absorption which dominates at wavelengths greater than ∼500 nm.

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U2 - 10.1029/2005JD006687

DO - 10.1029/2005JD006687

M3 - Article

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JO - JAPCA

JF - JAPCA

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