OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the most massive M dwarf planetary companion?

Subo Dong, Andrew Gould, Andrzej Udalski, Jay Anderson, G. W. Christie, B. S. Gaudi, M. Jaroszyński, M. Kubiak, M. K. Szymański, G. Pietrzyński, I. Soszyński, O. Szewczyk, K. Ulaczyk, Wyrzykowski, D. L. DePoy, D. B. Fox, A. Gal-Yam, C. Han, Lépine S. Lépine, J. McCormick & 64 others E. Ofek, B. G. Park, R. W. Pogge, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, I. A. Bond, T. R. Britton, A. C. Gilmore, J. B. Hearnshaw, Y. Itow, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, A. Korpela, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, M. Motomura, Y. Muraki, S. Nakamura, K. Ohnishi, C. Okada, N. Rattenbury, To Saito, T. Sako, M. Sasaki, D. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C M Yock, T. Yoshoika, M. D. Albrow, J. P. Beaulieu, S. Brillant, H. Calitz, A. Cassan, K. H. Cook, Ch Coutures, S. Dieters, D. Dominis Prester, J. Donatowicz, P. Fouqué, J. Greenhill, K. Hill, M. Hoffman, K. Horne, U. G. Jørgensen, S. Kane, D. Kubas, J. B. Marquette, R. Martin, P. Meintjes, J. Menzies, K. R. Pollard, K. C. Sahu, C. Vinter, J. Wambsganss, A. Williams, M. Bode, D. M. Bramich, M. Burgdorf, C. Snodgrass, I. Steele, Vanessa Doublier, Cedric Foellmi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

96 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We combine all available information to constrain the nature of OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the second planet discovered by microlensing and the first in a high-magnification event. These include photometric and astrometric measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as constraints from higher order effects extracted from the ground-based light curve, such as microlens parallax, planetary orbital motion, and finite-source effects. Our primary analysis leads to the conclusion that the host of Jovian planet OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is an M dwarf in the foreground disk with mass M = 0.46 ± 0.04 M⊙, distance D<inf>l</inf> = 3.2 ± 0.4 kpc, and thick-disk kinematics ν<inf>LSR</inf> ∼ 103 km s<sup>-1</sup>. From the best-fit model, the planet has mass M<inf>p</inf> = 3.8 ± 0.4 M<inf>Jupiter</inf>, lies at a projected separation r<inf>⊥</inf> = 3.6 ± 0.2AU from its host, and so has an equilibrium temperature of T ∼ 55 K, that is, similar to Neptune. A degenerate model gives similar planetary mass M<inf>p</inf> = 3.4 ± 0.4 M<inf>Jupiter</inf> with a smaller projected separation, r<inf>⊥</inf> = 2.1 ± 0.1AU, and higher equilibrium temperature, T ∼ 71 K. These results from the primary analysis suggest that OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is likely to be the most massive planet yet discovered that is hosted by an M dwarf. However, the formation of such high-mass planetary companions in the outer regions of M dwarf planetary systems is predicted to be unlikely within the core-accretion scenario. There are a number of caveats to this primary analysis, which assumes (based on real but limited evidence) that the unlensed light coincident with the source is actually due to the lens, that is, the planetary host. However, these caveats could mostly be resolved by a single astrometric measurement a few years after the event.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)970-987
Number of pages18
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume695
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

planets
planet
planetary mass
Neptune (planet)
planetary systems
Neptune
parallax
magnification
Hubble Space Telescope
light curve
kinematics
temperature
accretion
lenses
orbits
analysis
effect

Keywords

  • Galaxy: bulge
  • Gravitational lensing
  • Planetary systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Dong, S., Gould, A., Udalski, A., Anderson, J., Christie, G. W., Gaudi, B. S., ... Foellmi, C. (2009). OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the most massive M dwarf planetary companion? Astrophysical Journal, 695(2), 970-987. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/695/2/970

OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the most massive M dwarf planetary companion? / Dong, Subo; Gould, Andrew; Udalski, Andrzej; Anderson, Jay; Christie, G. W.; Gaudi, B. S.; Jaroszyński, M.; Kubiak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Szewczyk, O.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski; DePoy, D. L.; Fox, D. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Han, C.; Lépine, Lépine S.; McCormick, J.; Ofek, E.; Park, B. G.; Pogge, R. W.; Abe, F.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Britton, T. R.; Gilmore, A. C.; Hearnshaw, J. B.; Itow, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Korpela, A.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Motomura, M.; Muraki, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Okada, C.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To; Sako, T.; Sasaki, M.; Sullivan, D.; Sumi, T.; Tristram, P. J.; Yanagisawa, T.; Yock, P. C M; Yoshoika, T.; Albrow, M. D.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Brillant, S.; Calitz, H.; Cassan, A.; Cook, K. H.; Coutures, Ch; Dieters, S.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Greenhill, J.; Hill, K.; Hoffman, M.; Horne, K.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kane, S.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.; Martin, R.; Meintjes, P.; Menzies, J.; Pollard, K. R.; Sahu, K. C.; Vinter, C.; Wambsganss, J.; Williams, A.; Bode, M.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I.; Doublier, Vanessa; Foellmi, Cedric.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 695, No. 2, 20.04.2009, p. 970-987.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dong, S, Gould, A, Udalski, A, Anderson, J, Christie, GW, Gaudi, BS, Jaroszyński, M, Kubiak, M, Szymański, MK, Pietrzyński, G, Soszyński, I, Szewczyk, O, Ulaczyk, K, Wyrzykowski, DePoy, DL, Fox, DB, Gal-Yam, A, Han, C, Lépine, LS, McCormick, J, Ofek, E, Park, BG, Pogge, RW, Abe, F, Bennett, DP, Bond, IA, Britton, TR, Gilmore, AC, Hearnshaw, JB, Itow, Y, Kamiya, K, Kilmartin, PM, Korpela, A, Masuda, K, Matsubara, Y, Motomura, M, Muraki, Y, Nakamura, S, Ohnishi, K, Okada, C, Rattenbury, N, Saito, T, Sako, T, Sasaki, M, Sullivan, D, Sumi, T, Tristram, PJ, Yanagisawa, T, Yock, PCM, Yoshoika, T, Albrow, MD, Beaulieu, JP, Brillant, S, Calitz, H, Cassan, A, Cook, KH, Coutures, C, Dieters, S, Dominis Prester, D, Donatowicz, J, Fouqué, P, Greenhill, J, Hill, K, Hoffman, M, Horne, K, Jørgensen, UG, Kane, S, Kubas, D, Marquette, JB, Martin, R, Meintjes, P, Menzies, J, Pollard, KR, Sahu, KC, Vinter, C, Wambsganss, J, Williams, A, Bode, M, Bramich, DM, Burgdorf, M, Snodgrass, C, Steele, I, Doublier, V & Foellmi, C 2009, 'OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the most massive M dwarf planetary companion?', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 695, no. 2, pp. 970-987. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/695/2/970
Dong S, Gould A, Udalski A, Anderson J, Christie GW, Gaudi BS et al. OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the most massive M dwarf planetary companion? Astrophysical Journal. 2009 Apr 20;695(2):970-987. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/695/2/970
Dong, Subo ; Gould, Andrew ; Udalski, Andrzej ; Anderson, Jay ; Christie, G. W. ; Gaudi, B. S. ; Jaroszyński, M. ; Kubiak, M. ; Szymański, M. K. ; Pietrzyński, G. ; Soszyński, I. ; Szewczyk, O. ; Ulaczyk, K. ; Wyrzykowski ; DePoy, D. L. ; Fox, D. B. ; Gal-Yam, A. ; Han, C. ; Lépine, Lépine S. ; McCormick, J. ; Ofek, E. ; Park, B. G. ; Pogge, R. W. ; Abe, F. ; Bennett, D. P. ; Bond, I. A. ; Britton, T. R. ; Gilmore, A. C. ; Hearnshaw, J. B. ; Itow, Y. ; Kamiya, K. ; Kilmartin, P. M. ; Korpela, A. ; Masuda, K. ; Matsubara, Y. ; Motomura, M. ; Muraki, Y. ; Nakamura, S. ; Ohnishi, K. ; Okada, C. ; Rattenbury, N. ; Saito, To ; Sako, T. ; Sasaki, M. ; Sullivan, D. ; Sumi, T. ; Tristram, P. J. ; Yanagisawa, T. ; Yock, P. C M ; Yoshoika, T. ; Albrow, M. D. ; Beaulieu, J. P. ; Brillant, S. ; Calitz, H. ; Cassan, A. ; Cook, K. H. ; Coutures, Ch ; Dieters, S. ; Dominis Prester, D. ; Donatowicz, J. ; Fouqué, P. ; Greenhill, J. ; Hill, K. ; Hoffman, M. ; Horne, K. ; Jørgensen, U. G. ; Kane, S. ; Kubas, D. ; Marquette, J. B. ; Martin, R. ; Meintjes, P. ; Menzies, J. ; Pollard, K. R. ; Sahu, K. C. ; Vinter, C. ; Wambsganss, J. ; Williams, A. ; Bode, M. ; Bramich, D. M. ; Burgdorf, M. ; Snodgrass, C. ; Steele, I. ; Doublier, Vanessa ; Foellmi, Cedric. / OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the most massive M dwarf planetary companion?. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2009 ; Vol. 695, No. 2. pp. 970-987.
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title = "OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the most massive M dwarf planetary companion?",
abstract = "We combine all available information to constrain the nature of OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the second planet discovered by microlensing and the first in a high-magnification event. These include photometric and astrometric measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as constraints from higher order effects extracted from the ground-based light curve, such as microlens parallax, planetary orbital motion, and finite-source effects. Our primary analysis leads to the conclusion that the host of Jovian planet OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is an M dwarf in the foreground disk with mass M = 0.46 ± 0.04 M⊙, distance Dl = 3.2 ± 0.4 kpc, and thick-disk kinematics νLSR ∼ 103 km s-1. From the best-fit model, the planet has mass Mp = 3.8 ± 0.4 MJupiter, lies at a projected separation r⊥ = 3.6 ± 0.2AU from its host, and so has an equilibrium temperature of T ∼ 55 K, that is, similar to Neptune. A degenerate model gives similar planetary mass Mp = 3.4 ± 0.4 MJupiter with a smaller projected separation, r⊥ = 2.1 ± 0.1AU, and higher equilibrium temperature, T ∼ 71 K. These results from the primary analysis suggest that OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is likely to be the most massive planet yet discovered that is hosted by an M dwarf. However, the formation of such high-mass planetary companions in the outer regions of M dwarf planetary systems is predicted to be unlikely within the core-accretion scenario. There are a number of caveats to this primary analysis, which assumes (based on real but limited evidence) that the unlensed light coincident with the source is actually due to the lens, that is, the planetary host. However, these caveats could mostly be resolved by a single astrometric measurement a few years after the event.",
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T1 - OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the most massive M dwarf planetary companion?

AU - Dong, Subo

AU - Gould, Andrew

AU - Udalski, Andrzej

AU - Anderson, Jay

AU - Christie, G. W.

AU - Gaudi, B. S.

AU - Jaroszyński, M.

AU - Kubiak, M.

AU - Szymański, M. K.

AU - Pietrzyński, G.

AU - Soszyński, I.

AU - Szewczyk, O.

AU - Ulaczyk, K.

AU - Wyrzykowski,

AU - DePoy, D. L.

AU - Fox, D. B.

AU - Gal-Yam, A.

AU - Han, C.

AU - Lépine, Lépine S.

AU - McCormick, J.

AU - Ofek, E.

AU - Park, B. G.

AU - Pogge, R. W.

AU - Abe, F.

AU - Bennett, D. P.

AU - Bond, I. A.

AU - Britton, T. R.

AU - Gilmore, A. C.

AU - Hearnshaw, J. B.

AU - Itow, Y.

AU - Kamiya, K.

AU - Kilmartin, P. M.

AU - Korpela, A.

AU - Masuda, K.

AU - Matsubara, Y.

AU - Motomura, M.

AU - Muraki, Y.

AU - Nakamura, S.

AU - Ohnishi, K.

AU - Okada, C.

AU - Rattenbury, N.

AU - Saito, To

AU - Sako, T.

AU - Sasaki, M.

AU - Sullivan, D.

AU - Sumi, T.

AU - Tristram, P. J.

AU - Yanagisawa, T.

AU - Yock, P. C M

AU - Yoshoika, T.

AU - Albrow, M. D.

AU - Beaulieu, J. P.

AU - Brillant, S.

AU - Calitz, H.

AU - Cassan, A.

AU - Cook, K. H.

AU - Coutures, Ch

AU - Dieters, S.

AU - Dominis Prester, D.

AU - Donatowicz, J.

AU - Fouqué, P.

AU - Greenhill, J.

AU - Hill, K.

AU - Hoffman, M.

AU - Horne, K.

AU - Jørgensen, U. G.

AU - Kane, S.

AU - Kubas, D.

AU - Marquette, J. B.

AU - Martin, R.

AU - Meintjes, P.

AU - Menzies, J.

AU - Pollard, K. R.

AU - Sahu, K. C.

AU - Vinter, C.

AU - Wambsganss, J.

AU - Williams, A.

AU - Bode, M.

AU - Bramich, D. M.

AU - Burgdorf, M.

AU - Snodgrass, C.

AU - Steele, I.

AU - Doublier, Vanessa

AU - Foellmi, Cedric

PY - 2009/4/20

Y1 - 2009/4/20

N2 - We combine all available information to constrain the nature of OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the second planet discovered by microlensing and the first in a high-magnification event. These include photometric and astrometric measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as constraints from higher order effects extracted from the ground-based light curve, such as microlens parallax, planetary orbital motion, and finite-source effects. Our primary analysis leads to the conclusion that the host of Jovian planet OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is an M dwarf in the foreground disk with mass M = 0.46 ± 0.04 M⊙, distance Dl = 3.2 ± 0.4 kpc, and thick-disk kinematics νLSR ∼ 103 km s-1. From the best-fit model, the planet has mass Mp = 3.8 ± 0.4 MJupiter, lies at a projected separation r⊥ = 3.6 ± 0.2AU from its host, and so has an equilibrium temperature of T ∼ 55 K, that is, similar to Neptune. A degenerate model gives similar planetary mass Mp = 3.4 ± 0.4 MJupiter with a smaller projected separation, r⊥ = 2.1 ± 0.1AU, and higher equilibrium temperature, T ∼ 71 K. These results from the primary analysis suggest that OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is likely to be the most massive planet yet discovered that is hosted by an M dwarf. However, the formation of such high-mass planetary companions in the outer regions of M dwarf planetary systems is predicted to be unlikely within the core-accretion scenario. There are a number of caveats to this primary analysis, which assumes (based on real but limited evidence) that the unlensed light coincident with the source is actually due to the lens, that is, the planetary host. However, these caveats could mostly be resolved by a single astrometric measurement a few years after the event.

AB - We combine all available information to constrain the nature of OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the second planet discovered by microlensing and the first in a high-magnification event. These include photometric and astrometric measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as constraints from higher order effects extracted from the ground-based light curve, such as microlens parallax, planetary orbital motion, and finite-source effects. Our primary analysis leads to the conclusion that the host of Jovian planet OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is an M dwarf in the foreground disk with mass M = 0.46 ± 0.04 M⊙, distance Dl = 3.2 ± 0.4 kpc, and thick-disk kinematics νLSR ∼ 103 km s-1. From the best-fit model, the planet has mass Mp = 3.8 ± 0.4 MJupiter, lies at a projected separation r⊥ = 3.6 ± 0.2AU from its host, and so has an equilibrium temperature of T ∼ 55 K, that is, similar to Neptune. A degenerate model gives similar planetary mass Mp = 3.4 ± 0.4 MJupiter with a smaller projected separation, r⊥ = 2.1 ± 0.1AU, and higher equilibrium temperature, T ∼ 71 K. These results from the primary analysis suggest that OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is likely to be the most massive planet yet discovered that is hosted by an M dwarf. However, the formation of such high-mass planetary companions in the outer regions of M dwarf planetary systems is predicted to be unlikely within the core-accretion scenario. There are a number of caveats to this primary analysis, which assumes (based on real but limited evidence) that the unlensed light coincident with the source is actually due to the lens, that is, the planetary host. However, these caveats could mostly be resolved by a single astrometric measurement a few years after the event.

KW - Galaxy: bulge

KW - Gravitational lensing

KW - Planetary systems

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U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/695/2/970

DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/695/2/970

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SN - 0004-637X

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