Normal alveolar epithelial lining fluid contains high levels of glutathione

A. M. Cantin, S. L. North, R. C. Hubbard, Ronald Crystal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

631 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The epithelial cells on the alveolar surface of the human lower respiratory tract are vulnerable to toxic oxidants derived from inhaled pollutants or inflammatory cells. Although these lung cells have intracellular antioxidants, these defenses may be insufficient to protect the epithelial surface against oxidants present at the alveolar surface. This study demonstrates that the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lower respiratory tract contains large amounts of the sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The total glutathione (the reduced form GSH and the disulfide GSSG) concentration of normal ELF was 140-fold higher than that in plasma of the same individuals, and 96% of the glutathione in ELF was in the reduced form. Compared with nonsmokers, cigarette smokers had 80% higher levels of ELF total glutathione, 98% of which was in reduced form. Studies of cultured lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts demonstrated that these concentrations of reduced glutathione were sufficient to protect these cells against the burden of H2O2 in the range released by alveolar macrophages removed from the lower respiratory tract of nonsmokers and smokers, respectively, suggesting that the glutathione present in the alveolar ELF of normal individuals likely contributes to the protective screen against oxidants in the extracellular milieu of the lower respiratory tract.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-157
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Volume63
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1987
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Glutathione
Respiratory System
Oxidants
Antioxidants
Alveolar Epithelial Cells
Lung
Glutathione Disulfide
Poisons
Alveolar Macrophages
Tobacco Products
Disulfides
Fibroblasts
Epithelial Cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Normal alveolar epithelial lining fluid contains high levels of glutathione. / Cantin, A. M.; North, S. L.; Hubbard, R. C.; Crystal, Ronald.

In: Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 63, No. 1, 01.01.1987, p. 152-157.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cantin, A. M. ; North, S. L. ; Hubbard, R. C. ; Crystal, Ronald. / Normal alveolar epithelial lining fluid contains high levels of glutathione. In: Journal of Applied Physiology. 1987 ; Vol. 63, No. 1. pp. 152-157.
@article{c8ca773e5923472e9367a2a65e6b2042,
title = "Normal alveolar epithelial lining fluid contains high levels of glutathione",
abstract = "The epithelial cells on the alveolar surface of the human lower respiratory tract are vulnerable to toxic oxidants derived from inhaled pollutants or inflammatory cells. Although these lung cells have intracellular antioxidants, these defenses may be insufficient to protect the epithelial surface against oxidants present at the alveolar surface. This study demonstrates that the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lower respiratory tract contains large amounts of the sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The total glutathione (the reduced form GSH and the disulfide GSSG) concentration of normal ELF was 140-fold higher than that in plasma of the same individuals, and 96{\%} of the glutathione in ELF was in the reduced form. Compared with nonsmokers, cigarette smokers had 80{\%} higher levels of ELF total glutathione, 98{\%} of which was in reduced form. Studies of cultured lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts demonstrated that these concentrations of reduced glutathione were sufficient to protect these cells against the burden of H2O2 in the range released by alveolar macrophages removed from the lower respiratory tract of nonsmokers and smokers, respectively, suggesting that the glutathione present in the alveolar ELF of normal individuals likely contributes to the protective screen against oxidants in the extracellular milieu of the lower respiratory tract.",
author = "Cantin, {A. M.} and North, {S. L.} and Hubbard, {R. C.} and Ronald Crystal",
year = "1987",
month = "1",
day = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "63",
pages = "152--157",
journal = "Journal of Applied Physiology",
issn = "8750-7587",
publisher = "American Physiological Society",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Normal alveolar epithelial lining fluid contains high levels of glutathione

AU - Cantin, A. M.

AU - North, S. L.

AU - Hubbard, R. C.

AU - Crystal, Ronald

PY - 1987/1/1

Y1 - 1987/1/1

N2 - The epithelial cells on the alveolar surface of the human lower respiratory tract are vulnerable to toxic oxidants derived from inhaled pollutants or inflammatory cells. Although these lung cells have intracellular antioxidants, these defenses may be insufficient to protect the epithelial surface against oxidants present at the alveolar surface. This study demonstrates that the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lower respiratory tract contains large amounts of the sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The total glutathione (the reduced form GSH and the disulfide GSSG) concentration of normal ELF was 140-fold higher than that in plasma of the same individuals, and 96% of the glutathione in ELF was in the reduced form. Compared with nonsmokers, cigarette smokers had 80% higher levels of ELF total glutathione, 98% of which was in reduced form. Studies of cultured lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts demonstrated that these concentrations of reduced glutathione were sufficient to protect these cells against the burden of H2O2 in the range released by alveolar macrophages removed from the lower respiratory tract of nonsmokers and smokers, respectively, suggesting that the glutathione present in the alveolar ELF of normal individuals likely contributes to the protective screen against oxidants in the extracellular milieu of the lower respiratory tract.

AB - The epithelial cells on the alveolar surface of the human lower respiratory tract are vulnerable to toxic oxidants derived from inhaled pollutants or inflammatory cells. Although these lung cells have intracellular antioxidants, these defenses may be insufficient to protect the epithelial surface against oxidants present at the alveolar surface. This study demonstrates that the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lower respiratory tract contains large amounts of the sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The total glutathione (the reduced form GSH and the disulfide GSSG) concentration of normal ELF was 140-fold higher than that in plasma of the same individuals, and 96% of the glutathione in ELF was in the reduced form. Compared with nonsmokers, cigarette smokers had 80% higher levels of ELF total glutathione, 98% of which was in reduced form. Studies of cultured lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts demonstrated that these concentrations of reduced glutathione were sufficient to protect these cells against the burden of H2O2 in the range released by alveolar macrophages removed from the lower respiratory tract of nonsmokers and smokers, respectively, suggesting that the glutathione present in the alveolar ELF of normal individuals likely contributes to the protective screen against oxidants in the extracellular milieu of the lower respiratory tract.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023263523&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023263523&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 3040659

AN - SCOPUS:0023263523

VL - 63

SP - 152

EP - 157

JO - Journal of Applied Physiology

JF - Journal of Applied Physiology

SN - 8750-7587

IS - 1

ER -