Non-negative factor analysis of Gaussian mixture model weight adaptation for language and dialect recognition

Mohamad Hasan Bahari, Najim Dehak, Hugo Van Hamme, Lukas Burget, Ahmed M. Ali, Jim Glass

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)


Recent studies show that Gaussian mixture model (GMM) weights carry less, yet complimentary, information to GMM means for language and dialect recognition. However, state-of-the-art language recognition systems usually do not use this information. In this research, a non-negative factor analysis (NFA) approach is developed for GMM weight decomposition and adaptation. This modeling, which is conceptually simple and computationally inexpensive, suggests a new low-dimensional utterance representation method using a factor analysis similar to that of the i-vector framework. The obtained subspace vectors are then applied in conjunction with i-vectors to the language/dialect recognition problem. The suggested approach is evaluated on the NIST 2011 and RATS language recognition evaluation (LRE) corpora and on the QCRI Arabic dialect recognition evaluation (DRE) corpus. The assessment results show that the proposed adaptation method yields more accurate recognition results compared to three conventional weight adaptation approaches, namely maximum likelihood re-estimation, non-negative matrix factorization, and a subspace multinomial model. Experimental results also show that the intermediate-level fusion of i-vectors and NFA subspace vectors improves the performance of the state-of-the-art i-vector framework especially for the case of short utterances.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2319159
Pages (from-to)1117-1129
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2014



  • Dialect recognition
  • Gaussian mixture model weight
  • Language recognition
  • Model adaptation
  • Non-negative factor analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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