New developments in lithium sulfur batteries

Rui Xu, Ilias Belharouak, Xiaofeng Zhang, Bryant Polzin, James C.M. Li

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, efforts were conducted in order to mitigate the issue of polysulfides dissolution and hence to improve the capacity and efficiency of Li-sulfur cells. The first approach was achieved by optimizing the amount of sulfur that can be contained in the sulfur/carbon electrode. Five sulfur/carbon ratios were prepared- (1) 50/50, (2) 60/40, (3) 70/30, (4) 80/20, and (5) 90/10- to study the effect of carbon contents on electrochemical cycling. The second approach was by adding nano-sized TiO2 particles having a large specific surface area as the polysulfide adsorbing agent in the electrodes. The impact of nano-sized TiO2 particles in improving the electrochemical properties of sulfur electrodes was investigated using CV measurements and charge/discharge tests. To further enhance the efficiency and cycling stability of Li-S batteries, a novel polysulfide electrolyte was developed. This new electrolyte mainly consisted of pre-dissolved lithium polysulfides (Li2Sx) as an alternative electrolyte salt to replace the lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone)imide (LiTFSI). We also used LiNO3 to mitigate the shuttle mechanism that occurs in Li-S cells during the charge and discharge. By creating a dynamic equilibrium at the interface of the cathode and electrolyte, the dissolution of lithium polysulfides, and thus the loss of active materials from the cathode during the discharge and charge of the cell, was greatly prevented.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEnergy Harvesting and Storage
Subtitle of host publicationMaterials, Devices, and Applications IV
Publication statusPublished - 12 Aug 2013
EventEnergy Harvesting and Storage: Materials, Devices, and Applications IV - Baltimore, MD, United States
Duration: 29 Apr 20131 May 2013

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


OtherEnergy Harvesting and Storage: Materials, Devices, and Applications IV
CountryUnited States
CityBaltimore, MD



  • Coulombic efficiency
  • Energy density
  • Lithium polysulfide
  • Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries
  • Shuttle effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Xu, R., Belharouak, I., Zhang, X., Polzin, B., & Li, J. C. M. (2013). New developments in lithium sulfur batteries. In Energy Harvesting and Storage: Materials, Devices, and Applications IV [872804] (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 8728).