Nanofiltration of highly concentrated salt solutions up to seawater salinity

Nidal Hilal, H. Al-Zoubi, A. W. Mohammad, N. A. Darwish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

86 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recently, Nanofiltration (NF) membranes have been employed in pre-treatment unit operations in both thermal and membrane seawater desalination processes. This has resulted in reduction of chemicals used in pre-treatment processes as well as lowering the energy consumption and water production cost and, therefore, has led to a more environmentally friendly processes. In order to predict NF membrane performance, a systematic study on the filtration performance of selected commercial NF membranes against brackish water and seawater is required. In this study, three commercial nanofiltration membranes (NF90, NF270, N30F) have been used to treat highly concentrated (NaCl) salt solutions up to 25,000 ppm, a salinity level similar to that of seawater. The membranes were firstly characterized using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technique. Pore size and pore size distribution obtained from AFM measurements were used to analyse both experimental data of pure water permeation and data obtained from salt rejection. The main parameters studied in this paper are feed pressure and salt concentration. The experimental data of this work was correlated and analysed using the Spigler-Kedem model. In particular, the reflection coefficient (σ) of all studied membranes and the solute permeability of the salt (Ps) have been determined for all membranes and at all salinity levels studied. For a salinity of 5000 ppm and a pressure of 9 bars, the experimental results showed that NF90 could achieve a salt rejection up to 95%, whereas its rejection dropped to 41% at a salinity of 25,000 ppm and the same pressure. Rejection levels achieved by NF270 have been in range of 11-29% while N30F gave the lowest rejection in the range of 3-6%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-326
Number of pages12
JournalDesalination
Volume184
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Nanofiltration
Nanofiltration membranes
Seawater
Salts
membrane
salt
seawater
salinity
Membranes
Pore size
Atomic force microscopy
atomic force microscopy
Water
Desalination
Permeation
Energy utilization
production cost
brackish water
desalination
solute

Keywords

  • AFM
  • Membrane
  • Nanofiltration
  • Pre-treatment
  • Salt rejections
  • Seawater
  • Spigler-Kedem model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Filtration and Separation

Cite this

Hilal, N., Al-Zoubi, H., Mohammad, A. W., & Darwish, N. A. (2005). Nanofiltration of highly concentrated salt solutions up to seawater salinity. Desalination, 184(1-3), 315-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2005.02.062

Nanofiltration of highly concentrated salt solutions up to seawater salinity. / Hilal, Nidal; Al-Zoubi, H.; Mohammad, A. W.; Darwish, N. A.

In: Desalination, Vol. 184, No. 1-3, 01.11.2005, p. 315-326.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hilal, N, Al-Zoubi, H, Mohammad, AW & Darwish, NA 2005, 'Nanofiltration of highly concentrated salt solutions up to seawater salinity', Desalination, vol. 184, no. 1-3, pp. 315-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2005.02.062
Hilal, Nidal ; Al-Zoubi, H. ; Mohammad, A. W. ; Darwish, N. A. / Nanofiltration of highly concentrated salt solutions up to seawater salinity. In: Desalination. 2005 ; Vol. 184, No. 1-3. pp. 315-326.
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