Multiple-diffusion flame synthesis of pure anatase and carbon-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles

Nasir K. Memon, Dalaver H. Anjum, Suk Ho Chung

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    A multi-element diffusion flame burner (MEDB) is useful in the study of flame synthesis of nanomaterials. Here, the growth of pure anatase and carbon-coated titanium dioxide (TiO2) using an MEDB is demonstrated. Hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar) are utilized to establish the flame, whereas titanium tetraisopropoxide is used as the precursor for TiO2. The nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, with elemental mapping (of C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The growth of pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles occurs when Ar and H2 are used as the precursor carrier gas, while the growth of carbon-coated nanoparticles ensues when Ar and ethylene (C2H4) are used as the precursor carrier gas. A uniform coating of 3-5nm of carbon is observed around TiO2 particles. The growth of highly crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles is dependent on the gas flow rate of the precursor carrier and amorphous particles are observed at high flow rates. Carbon coating occurs only on crystalline nanoparticles, suggesting a possible growth mechanism of carbon-coated TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1848-1856
    Number of pages9
    JournalCombustion and Flame
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2013



    • Carbon-coating
    • Flame synthesis
    • Multiple-diffusion flames
    • Titanium dioxide

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Chemistry(all)
    • Chemical Engineering(all)
    • Fuel Technology
    • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
    • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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