Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most prevalent metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and an inadequate response to circulatory insulin by peripheral tissues resulting in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has a complex pathophysiology, and it is contributed to by multiple factors including oxidative stress. Oxidative stress refers to an imbalance between free radical production and the antioxidant system leading to a reduction of peripheral insulin sensitivity and contributing to the development of T2DM via several molecular mechanisms. In this review, we present the molecular mechanisms by which the oxidative milieu contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology