Molecular and Genomic Impact of Large and Small Lateral Dimension Graphene Oxide Sheets on Human Immune Cells from Healthy Donors

Marco Orecchioni, Dhifaf A. Jasim, Mario Pescatori, Roberto Manetti, Claudio Fozza, Francesco Sgarrella, Davide Bedognetti, Alberto Bianco, Kostas Kostarelos, Lucia Gemma Delogu

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39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Graphene oxide (GO) is attracting great interest in biomedical sciences. The impact of GO on immune cells is one fundamental area of study that is often overlooked, but critical in terms of clinical translation. This work investigates the effects of two types of thoroughly characterized GO sheets, different in their lateral dimension, on human peripheral immune cells provided from healthy donors using a wide range of assays. After evaluation of cell viability, the gene expression was analyzed, following GO exposure on 84 genes related to innate and adaptive immune responses. Exposure to GO small sheets was found to have a more significant impact on immune cells compared to GO large sheets, reflected in the upregulation of critical genes implicated in immune responses and the release of cytokines IL1β and TNFα. These findings were further confirmed by whole-genome microarray analysis of the impact of small GO sheets on T cells and monocytes. Activation in both cell types was underlined by the overexpression of genes such as CXCL10 and receptor CXCR3. Significant energy-dependent pathway modulation was identified. These findings can potentially pave the foundations for further design of graphene that can be used for immune modulation applications, for example in cancer immunotherapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-287
Number of pages12
JournalAdvanced healthcare materials
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016

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Keywords

  • Carbon nanomaterials
  • Immunotherapy
  • Immunotoxicity
  • Microarray
  • Nanomedicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science

Cite this

Orecchioni, M., Jasim, D. A., Pescatori, M., Manetti, R., Fozza, C., Sgarrella, F., Bedognetti, D., Bianco, A., Kostarelos, K., & Delogu, L. G. (2016). Molecular and Genomic Impact of Large and Small Lateral Dimension Graphene Oxide Sheets on Human Immune Cells from Healthy Donors. Advanced healthcare materials, 5(2), 276-287. https://doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201500606