Modeling the phase behavior in mixtures of pharmaceuticals with liquid or supercritical solvents

Ioannis Tsivintzelis, Ioannis Economou, Georgios M. Kontogeorgis

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38 Citations (Scopus)


The concept of solubility parameter, which is widely used for the screening of solvents in pharmaceutical applications, is combined with a thermodynamic theory that is able to model systems with large deviations from ideal behavior. The nonrandom hydrogen-bonding (NRHB) theory is applied to model the phase behavior of mixtures of six Pharmaceuticals (i.e., ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, benzoic acid, methyl paraben, and ethyl paraben). The pure fluid parameters of the studied Pharmaceuticals were estimated using limited available experimental (or predicted) data on sublimation pressures, liquid densities, and Hansen's solubility parameters. The complex hydrogen-bonding behavior was explicitly accounted for, while the corresponding parameters were adopted from simpler molecules of similar chemical structure or/and fitted to the aforementioned pure fluid properties. In this way, the solubility of the studied Pharmaceuticals in liquid solvents was calculated. The average root-mean-square deviation between experimental and calculated solubilities is 0.190 and 0.037 in logio units for prediction (calculations without a binary interaction parameter adjustment) and for correlation (calculations using one binary interaction parameter fitted to experimental data), respectively. In addition, using one temperature-independent binary interaction parameter the phase behavior of Pharmaceuticals in supercritical CO2 and ethane was satisfactorily correlated. Finally, preliminary encouraging results are shown concerning two ternary mixtures where the model is able to predict accurately the solubility of Pharmaceuticals in mixed solvents based on interaction parameters fitted to corresponding single solvent data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6446-6458
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry B
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 7 May 2009
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

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