MOA-2011-BLG-262Lb

A sub-earth-mass moon orbiting a gas giant primary or a high velocity planetary system in the galactic bulge

D. P. Bennett, V. Batista, I. A. Bond, C. S. Bennett, D. Suzuki, J. P. Beaulieu, A. Udalski, J. Donatowicz, V. Bozza, F. Abe, C. S. Botzler, M. Freeman, D. Fukunaga, A. Fukui, Y. Itow, N. Koshimoto, C. H. Ling, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki & 75 others S. Namba, K. Ohnishi, N. J. Rattenbury, To Saito, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, W. L. Sweatman, P. J. Tristram, N. Tsurumi, K. Wada, P. C M Yock, M. D. Albrow, E. Bachelet, S. Brillant, J. A R Caldwell, A. Cassan, A. A. Cole, E. Corrales, C. Coutures, S. Dieters, D. Dominis Prester, P. Fouqué, J. Greenhill, K. Horne, J. R. Koo, D. Kubas, J. B. Marquette, R. Martin, J. W. Menzies, K. C. Sahu, J. Wambsganss, A. Williams, M. Zub, J. Y. Choi, D. L. Depoy, Subo Dong, B. S. Gaudi, A. Gould, C. Han, C. B. Henderson, D. McGregor, C. U. Lee, R. W. Pogge, I. G. Shin, J. C. Yee, M. K. Szymański, J. Skowron, R. Poleski, S. Kozłowski, Wyrzykowski, M. Kubiak, P. Pietrukowicz, G. Pietrzyński, I. Soszyński, K. Ulaczyk, Y. Tsapras, R. A. Street, M. Dominik, D. M. Bramich, P. Browne, M. Hundertmark, N. Kains, C. Snodgrass, I. A. Steele, I. Dekany, O. A. Gonzalez, D. Heyrovský, R. Kandori, E. Kerins, P. W. Lucas, D. Minniti, T. Nagayama, M. Rejkuba, A. C. Robin, And R. Saito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present the first microlensing candidate for a free-floating exoplanet-exomoon system, MOA-2011-BLG-262, with a primary lens mass of M host ∼ 4 Jupiter masses hosting a sub-Earth mass moon. The argument for an exomoon hinges on the system being relatively close to the Sun. The data constrain the product ML π rel where ML is the lens system mass and πrel is the lens-source relative parallax. If the lens system is nearby (large πrel), then ML is small (a few Jupiter masses) and the companion is a sub-Earth-mass exomoon. The best-fit solution has a large lens-source relative proper motion, μrel = 19.6 ± 1.6 mas yr-1, which would rule out a distant lens system unless the source star has an unusually high proper motion. However, data from the OGLE collaboration nearly rule out a high source proper motion, so the exoplanet+exomoon model is the favored interpretation for the best fit model. However, there is an alternate solution that has a lower proper motion and fits the data almost as well. This solution is compatible with a distant (so stellar) host. A Bayesian analysis does not favor the exoplanet+exomoon interpretation, so Occam's razor favors a lens system in the bulge with host and companion masses of and Mhost = 0.12 ?0.06 +0.19 MȮ and mcomp = 18 ?10 +28M⊕, at a projected separation of a perp; = 0.84?0.14 +0.25 AU. The existence of this degeneracy is an unlucky accident, so current microlensing experiments are in principle sensitive to exomoons. In some circumstances, it will be possible to definitively establish the mass of such lens systems through the microlensing parallax effect. Future experiments will be sensitive to less extreme exomoons.

Original languageEnglish
Article number155
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume785
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

galactic bulge
planetary systems
natural satellites
Moon
lenses
proper motion
gases
gas
extrasolar planets
parallax
Jupiter (planet)
Jupiter
Bayesian analysis
hinges
accidents
floating
accident
experiment
stars
products

Keywords

  • gravitational lensing: micro
  • planetary systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Bennett, D. P., Batista, V., Bond, I. A., Bennett, C. S., Suzuki, D., Beaulieu, J. P., ... Saito, A. R. (2014). MOA-2011-BLG-262Lb: A sub-earth-mass moon orbiting a gas giant primary or a high velocity planetary system in the galactic bulge. Astrophysical Journal, 785(2), [155]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/785/2/155

MOA-2011-BLG-262Lb : A sub-earth-mass moon orbiting a gas giant primary or a high velocity planetary system in the galactic bulge. / Bennett, D. P.; Batista, V.; Bond, I. A.; Bennett, C. S.; Suzuki, D.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Udalski, A.; Donatowicz, J.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukunaga, D.; Fukui, A.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Namba, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Saito, To; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Sweatman, W. L.; Tristram, P. J.; Tsurumi, N.; Wada, K.; Yock, P. C M; Albrow, M. D.; Bachelet, E.; Brillant, S.; Caldwell, J. A R; Cassan, A.; Cole, A. A.; Corrales, E.; Coutures, C.; Dieters, S.; Dominis Prester, D.; Fouqué, P.; Greenhill, J.; Horne, K.; Koo, J. R.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.; Martin, R.; Menzies, J. W.; Sahu, K. C.; Wambsganss, J.; Williams, A.; Zub, M.; Choi, J. Y.; Depoy, D. L.; Dong, Subo; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Henderson, C. B.; McGregor, D.; Lee, C. U.; Pogge, R. W.; Shin, I. G.; Yee, J. C.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski; Kubiak, M.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Tsapras, Y.; Street, R. A.; Dominik, M.; Bramich, D. M.; Browne, P.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Dekany, I.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Heyrovský, D.; Kandori, R.; Kerins, E.; Lucas, P. W.; Minniti, D.; Nagayama, T.; Rejkuba, M.; Robin, A. C.; Saito, And R.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 785, No. 2, 155, 20.04.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bennett, DP, Batista, V, Bond, IA, Bennett, CS, Suzuki, D, Beaulieu, JP, Udalski, A, Donatowicz, J, Bozza, V, Abe, F, Botzler, CS, Freeman, M, Fukunaga, D, Fukui, A, Itow, Y, Koshimoto, N, Ling, CH, Masuda, K, Matsubara, Y, Muraki, Y, Namba, S, Ohnishi, K, Rattenbury, NJ, Saito, T, Sullivan, DJ, Sumi, T, Sweatman, WL, Tristram, PJ, Tsurumi, N, Wada, K, Yock, PCM, Albrow, MD, Bachelet, E, Brillant, S, Caldwell, JAR, Cassan, A, Cole, AA, Corrales, E, Coutures, C, Dieters, S, Dominis Prester, D, Fouqué, P, Greenhill, J, Horne, K, Koo, JR, Kubas, D, Marquette, JB, Martin, R, Menzies, JW, Sahu, KC, Wambsganss, J, Williams, A, Zub, M, Choi, JY, Depoy, DL, Dong, S, Gaudi, BS, Gould, A, Han, C, Henderson, CB, McGregor, D, Lee, CU, Pogge, RW, Shin, IG, Yee, JC, Szymański, MK, Skowron, J, Poleski, R, Kozłowski, S, Wyrzykowski, Kubiak, M, Pietrukowicz, P, Pietrzyński, G, Soszyński, I, Ulaczyk, K, Tsapras, Y, Street, RA, Dominik, M, Bramich, DM, Browne, P, Hundertmark, M, Kains, N, Snodgrass, C, Steele, IA, Dekany, I, Gonzalez, OA, Heyrovský, D, Kandori, R, Kerins, E, Lucas, PW, Minniti, D, Nagayama, T, Rejkuba, M, Robin, AC & Saito, AR 2014, 'MOA-2011-BLG-262Lb: A sub-earth-mass moon orbiting a gas giant primary or a high velocity planetary system in the galactic bulge', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 785, no. 2, 155. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/785/2/155
Bennett, D. P. ; Batista, V. ; Bond, I. A. ; Bennett, C. S. ; Suzuki, D. ; Beaulieu, J. P. ; Udalski, A. ; Donatowicz, J. ; Bozza, V. ; Abe, F. ; Botzler, C. S. ; Freeman, M. ; Fukunaga, D. ; Fukui, A. ; Itow, Y. ; Koshimoto, N. ; Ling, C. H. ; Masuda, K. ; Matsubara, Y. ; Muraki, Y. ; Namba, S. ; Ohnishi, K. ; Rattenbury, N. J. ; Saito, To ; Sullivan, D. J. ; Sumi, T. ; Sweatman, W. L. ; Tristram, P. J. ; Tsurumi, N. ; Wada, K. ; Yock, P. C M ; Albrow, M. D. ; Bachelet, E. ; Brillant, S. ; Caldwell, J. A R ; Cassan, A. ; Cole, A. A. ; Corrales, E. ; Coutures, C. ; Dieters, S. ; Dominis Prester, D. ; Fouqué, P. ; Greenhill, J. ; Horne, K. ; Koo, J. R. ; Kubas, D. ; Marquette, J. B. ; Martin, R. ; Menzies, J. W. ; Sahu, K. C. ; Wambsganss, J. ; Williams, A. ; Zub, M. ; Choi, J. Y. ; Depoy, D. L. ; Dong, Subo ; Gaudi, B. S. ; Gould, A. ; Han, C. ; Henderson, C. B. ; McGregor, D. ; Lee, C. U. ; Pogge, R. W. ; Shin, I. G. ; Yee, J. C. ; Szymański, M. K. ; Skowron, J. ; Poleski, R. ; Kozłowski, S. ; Wyrzykowski ; Kubiak, M. ; Pietrukowicz, P. ; Pietrzyński, G. ; Soszyński, I. ; Ulaczyk, K. ; Tsapras, Y. ; Street, R. A. ; Dominik, M. ; Bramich, D. M. ; Browne, P. ; Hundertmark, M. ; Kains, N. ; Snodgrass, C. ; Steele, I. A. ; Dekany, I. ; Gonzalez, O. A. ; Heyrovský, D. ; Kandori, R. ; Kerins, E. ; Lucas, P. W. ; Minniti, D. ; Nagayama, T. ; Rejkuba, M. ; Robin, A. C. ; Saito, And R. / MOA-2011-BLG-262Lb : A sub-earth-mass moon orbiting a gas giant primary or a high velocity planetary system in the galactic bulge. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 785, No. 2.
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title = "MOA-2011-BLG-262Lb: A sub-earth-mass moon orbiting a gas giant primary or a high velocity planetary system in the galactic bulge",
abstract = "We present the first microlensing candidate for a free-floating exoplanet-exomoon system, MOA-2011-BLG-262, with a primary lens mass of M host ∼ 4 Jupiter masses hosting a sub-Earth mass moon. The argument for an exomoon hinges on the system being relatively close to the Sun. The data constrain the product ML π rel where ML is the lens system mass and πrel is the lens-source relative parallax. If the lens system is nearby (large πrel), then ML is small (a few Jupiter masses) and the companion is a sub-Earth-mass exomoon. The best-fit solution has a large lens-source relative proper motion, μrel = 19.6 ± 1.6 mas yr-1, which would rule out a distant lens system unless the source star has an unusually high proper motion. However, data from the OGLE collaboration nearly rule out a high source proper motion, so the exoplanet+exomoon model is the favored interpretation for the best fit model. However, there is an alternate solution that has a lower proper motion and fits the data almost as well. This solution is compatible with a distant (so stellar) host. A Bayesian analysis does not favor the exoplanet+exomoon interpretation, so Occam's razor favors a lens system in the bulge with host and companion masses of and Mhost = 0.12 ?0.06 +0.19 MȮ and mcomp = 18 ?10 +28M⊕, at a projected separation of a perp; = 0.84?0.14 +0.25 AU. The existence of this degeneracy is an unlucky accident, so current microlensing experiments are in principle sensitive to exomoons. In some circumstances, it will be possible to definitively establish the mass of such lens systems through the microlensing parallax effect. Future experiments will be sensitive to less extreme exomoons.",
keywords = "gravitational lensing: micro, planetary systems",
author = "Bennett, {D. P.} and V. Batista and Bond, {I. A.} and Bennett, {C. S.} and D. Suzuki and Beaulieu, {J. P.} and A. Udalski and J. Donatowicz and V. Bozza and F. Abe and Botzler, {C. S.} and M. Freeman and D. Fukunaga and A. Fukui and Y. Itow and N. Koshimoto and Ling, {C. H.} and K. Masuda and Y. Matsubara and Y. Muraki and S. Namba and K. Ohnishi and Rattenbury, {N. J.} and To Saito and Sullivan, {D. J.} and T. Sumi and Sweatman, {W. L.} and Tristram, {P. J.} and N. Tsurumi and K. Wada and Yock, {P. C M} and Albrow, {M. D.} and E. Bachelet and S. Brillant and Caldwell, {J. A R} and A. Cassan and Cole, {A. A.} and E. Corrales and C. Coutures and S. Dieters and {Dominis Prester}, D. and P. Fouqu{\'e} and J. Greenhill and K. Horne and Koo, {J. R.} and D. Kubas and Marquette, {J. B.} and R. Martin and Menzies, {J. W.} and Sahu, {K. C.} and J. Wambsganss and A. Williams and M. Zub and Choi, {J. Y.} and Depoy, {D. L.} and Subo Dong and Gaudi, {B. S.} and A. Gould and C. Han and Henderson, {C. B.} and D. McGregor and Lee, {C. U.} and Pogge, {R. W.} and Shin, {I. G.} and Yee, {J. C.} and Szymański, {M. K.} and J. Skowron and R. Poleski and S. Kozłowski and Wyrzykowski and M. Kubiak and P. Pietrukowicz and G. Pietrzyński and I. Soszyński and K. Ulaczyk and Y. Tsapras and Street, {R. A.} and M. Dominik and Bramich, {D. M.} and P. Browne and M. Hundertmark and N. Kains and C. Snodgrass and Steele, {I. A.} and I. Dekany and Gonzalez, {O. A.} and D. Heyrovsk{\'y} and R. Kandori and E. Kerins and Lucas, {P. W.} and D. Minniti and T. Nagayama and M. Rejkuba and Robin, {A. C.} and Saito, {And R.}",
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month = "4",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - MOA-2011-BLG-262Lb

T2 - A sub-earth-mass moon orbiting a gas giant primary or a high velocity planetary system in the galactic bulge

AU - Bennett, D. P.

AU - Batista, V.

AU - Bond, I. A.

AU - Bennett, C. S.

AU - Suzuki, D.

AU - Beaulieu, J. P.

AU - Udalski, A.

AU - Donatowicz, J.

AU - Bozza, V.

AU - Abe, F.

AU - Botzler, C. S.

AU - Freeman, M.

AU - Fukunaga, D.

AU - Fukui, A.

AU - Itow, Y.

AU - Koshimoto, N.

AU - Ling, C. H.

AU - Masuda, K.

AU - Matsubara, Y.

AU - Muraki, Y.

AU - Namba, S.

AU - Ohnishi, K.

AU - Rattenbury, N. J.

AU - Saito, To

AU - Sullivan, D. J.

AU - Sumi, T.

AU - Sweatman, W. L.

AU - Tristram, P. J.

AU - Tsurumi, N.

AU - Wada, K.

AU - Yock, P. C M

AU - Albrow, M. D.

AU - Bachelet, E.

AU - Brillant, S.

AU - Caldwell, J. A R

AU - Cassan, A.

AU - Cole, A. A.

AU - Corrales, E.

AU - Coutures, C.

AU - Dieters, S.

AU - Dominis Prester, D.

AU - Fouqué, P.

AU - Greenhill, J.

AU - Horne, K.

AU - Koo, J. R.

AU - Kubas, D.

AU - Marquette, J. B.

AU - Martin, R.

AU - Menzies, J. W.

AU - Sahu, K. C.

AU - Wambsganss, J.

AU - Williams, A.

AU - Zub, M.

AU - Choi, J. Y.

AU - Depoy, D. L.

AU - Dong, Subo

AU - Gaudi, B. S.

AU - Gould, A.

AU - Han, C.

AU - Henderson, C. B.

AU - McGregor, D.

AU - Lee, C. U.

AU - Pogge, R. W.

AU - Shin, I. G.

AU - Yee, J. C.

AU - Szymański, M. K.

AU - Skowron, J.

AU - Poleski, R.

AU - Kozłowski, S.

AU - Wyrzykowski,

AU - Kubiak, M.

AU - Pietrukowicz, P.

AU - Pietrzyński, G.

AU - Soszyński, I.

AU - Ulaczyk, K.

AU - Tsapras, Y.

AU - Street, R. A.

AU - Dominik, M.

AU - Bramich, D. M.

AU - Browne, P.

AU - Hundertmark, M.

AU - Kains, N.

AU - Snodgrass, C.

AU - Steele, I. A.

AU - Dekany, I.

AU - Gonzalez, O. A.

AU - Heyrovský, D.

AU - Kandori, R.

AU - Kerins, E.

AU - Lucas, P. W.

AU - Minniti, D.

AU - Nagayama, T.

AU - Rejkuba, M.

AU - Robin, A. C.

AU - Saito, And R.

PY - 2014/4/20

Y1 - 2014/4/20

N2 - We present the first microlensing candidate for a free-floating exoplanet-exomoon system, MOA-2011-BLG-262, with a primary lens mass of M host ∼ 4 Jupiter masses hosting a sub-Earth mass moon. The argument for an exomoon hinges on the system being relatively close to the Sun. The data constrain the product ML π rel where ML is the lens system mass and πrel is the lens-source relative parallax. If the lens system is nearby (large πrel), then ML is small (a few Jupiter masses) and the companion is a sub-Earth-mass exomoon. The best-fit solution has a large lens-source relative proper motion, μrel = 19.6 ± 1.6 mas yr-1, which would rule out a distant lens system unless the source star has an unusually high proper motion. However, data from the OGLE collaboration nearly rule out a high source proper motion, so the exoplanet+exomoon model is the favored interpretation for the best fit model. However, there is an alternate solution that has a lower proper motion and fits the data almost as well. This solution is compatible with a distant (so stellar) host. A Bayesian analysis does not favor the exoplanet+exomoon interpretation, so Occam's razor favors a lens system in the bulge with host and companion masses of and Mhost = 0.12 ?0.06 +0.19 MȮ and mcomp = 18 ?10 +28M⊕, at a projected separation of a perp; = 0.84?0.14 +0.25 AU. The existence of this degeneracy is an unlucky accident, so current microlensing experiments are in principle sensitive to exomoons. In some circumstances, it will be possible to definitively establish the mass of such lens systems through the microlensing parallax effect. Future experiments will be sensitive to less extreme exomoons.

AB - We present the first microlensing candidate for a free-floating exoplanet-exomoon system, MOA-2011-BLG-262, with a primary lens mass of M host ∼ 4 Jupiter masses hosting a sub-Earth mass moon. The argument for an exomoon hinges on the system being relatively close to the Sun. The data constrain the product ML π rel where ML is the lens system mass and πrel is the lens-source relative parallax. If the lens system is nearby (large πrel), then ML is small (a few Jupiter masses) and the companion is a sub-Earth-mass exomoon. The best-fit solution has a large lens-source relative proper motion, μrel = 19.6 ± 1.6 mas yr-1, which would rule out a distant lens system unless the source star has an unusually high proper motion. However, data from the OGLE collaboration nearly rule out a high source proper motion, so the exoplanet+exomoon model is the favored interpretation for the best fit model. However, there is an alternate solution that has a lower proper motion and fits the data almost as well. This solution is compatible with a distant (so stellar) host. A Bayesian analysis does not favor the exoplanet+exomoon interpretation, so Occam's razor favors a lens system in the bulge with host and companion masses of and Mhost = 0.12 ?0.06 +0.19 MȮ and mcomp = 18 ?10 +28M⊕, at a projected separation of a perp; = 0.84?0.14 +0.25 AU. The existence of this degeneracy is an unlucky accident, so current microlensing experiments are in principle sensitive to exomoons. In some circumstances, it will be possible to definitively establish the mass of such lens systems through the microlensing parallax effect. Future experiments will be sensitive to less extreme exomoons.

KW - gravitational lensing: micro

KW - planetary systems

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84897983113&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84897983113&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/785/2/155

DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/785/2/155

M3 - Article

VL - 785

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2

M1 - 155

ER -