The long-term microvascular complications of diabetes pose a major health burden. Although, much of the focus has been on the macrovascular complications, it is clear that the microvascular complications have a significant impact on both morbidity and mortality amongst diabetic patients. Indeed retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy compete as the leading causes of premature blindness, end-stage renal disease, and non-traumatic lower-limb amputation, respectively. Furthermore, complications develop and progress in unison and indeed share many common risk factors. Effective evaluation and monitoring of these complications in clinical practice is clearly important, however, it is also relevant to clinical intervention studies, and drug development programs addressing microvascular complications. Novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are continually evolving in this area and will be discussed in more detail in this review.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism