Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries

a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

Stephen S. Lim, Kate Allen, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Lalit Dandona, Mohammad H. Forouzanfar, Nancy Fullman, Peter W. Gething, Ellen M. Goldberg, Simon I. Hay, Mollie Holmberg, Yohannes Kinfu, Michael J. Kutz, Heidi J. Larson, Xiaofeng Liang, Alan D. Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Claire R. McNellan, Ali H. Mokdad, Meghan D. Mooney, Mohsen Naghavi & 656 others Helen E. Olsen, David M. Pigott, Joshua A. Salomon, Theo Vos, Haidong Wang, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Kaja M. Abbas, Foad Abd-Allah, Abdishakur M. Abdulle, Biju Abraham, Ibrahim Abubakar, Laith J. Abu-Raddad, Niveen M.E. Abu-Rmeileh, Gebre Yitayih Abyu, Tom Achoki, Akindele Olupelumi Adebiyi, Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji, Kossivi Agbelenko Afanvi, Ashkan Afshin, Arnav Agarwal, Anurag Agrawal, Aliasghar Ahmad Kiadaliri, Hamid Ahmadieh, Kedir Yimam Ahmed, Ali Shafqat Akanda, Rufus Olusola Akinyemi, Tomi F. Akinyemiju, Nadia Akseer, Ziyad Al-Aly, Khurshid Alam, Uzma Alam, Deena Alasfoor, Fadia S. AlBuhairan, Saleh Fahed Aldhahri, Robert William Aldridge, Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Raghib Ali, Ala'a Alkerwi, Mohammad AB Alkhateeb, François Alla, Peter Allebeck, Christine Allen, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Khalid A. Altirkawi, Elena Alvarez Martin, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Azmeraw T. Amare, Alemayehu Amberbir, Adeladza Kofi Amegah, Heresh Amini, Walid Ammar, Stephen Marc Amrock, Hjalte H. Andersen, Benjamin O. Anderson, Gregory M. Anderson, Carl Abelardo T. Antonio, Palwasha Anwari, Johan Ärnlöv, Al Artaman, Hamid Asayesh, Rana Jawad Asghar, Suleman Atique, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur Avokpaho, Ashish Awasthi, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Peter Azzopardi, Umar Bacha, Alaa Badawi, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Amitava Banerjee, Aleksandra Barac, Ryan Barber, Suzanne L. Barker-Collo, Till Bärnighausen, Lope H. Barrero, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez, Sanjay Basu, Tigist Assefa Bayou, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Justin Beardsley, Neeraj Bedi, Ettore Beghi, Yannick Béjot, Michelle L. Bell, Aminu K. Bello, Derrick A. Bennett, Isabela M. Bensenor, Habib Benzian, Adugnaw Berhane, Eduardo Bernabé, Oscar Alberto Bernal, Balem Demtsu Betsu, Addisu Shunu Beyene, Neeraj Bhala, Samir Bhatt, Sibhatu Biadgilign, Kelly A. Bienhoff, Boris Bikbov, Agnes Binagwaho, Donal Bisanzio, Espen Bjertness, Jed Blore, Rupert R.A. Bourne, Michael Brainin, Michael Brauer, Alexandra Brazinova, Nicholas J.K. Breitborde, David M. Broday, Traolach S. Brugha, Rachelle Buchbinder, Zahid A. Butt, Leah E. Cahill, Ismael Ricardo Campos-Nonato, Julio Cesar Campuzano, Hélène Carabin, Rosario Cárdenas, Juan Jesus Carrero, Austin Carter, Daniel Casey, Valeria Caso, Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela, Jacqueline Castillo Rivas, Ferrán Catalá-López, Fiorella Cavalleri, Pedro Cecílio, Hsing Yi Chang, Jung Chen Chang, Fiona J. Charlson, Xuan Che, Alan Zian Chen, Peggy Pei Chia Chiang, Mirriam Chibalabala, Vesper Hichilombwe Chisumpa, Jee Young Jasmine Choi, Rajiv Chowdhury, Hanne Christensen, Laith Aburaddad, Massimo Cirillo, Matthew M. Coates, Megan Coggeshall, Aaron J. Cohen, Graham S. Cooke, Cyrus Cooper, Leslie Trumbull Cooper, Benjamin C. Cowie, John A. Crump, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Rakhi Dandona, Paul I. Dargan, José das Neves, Adrian C. Davis, Kairat Davletov, E. Filipa de Castro, Diego De Leo, Louisa Degenhardt, Liana C. Del Gobbo, Kebede Deribe, Sarah Derrett, Don C. Des Jarlais, Aniruddha Deshpande, Gabrielle A. deVeber, Subhojit Dey, Samath D. Dharmaratne, Preet K. Dhillon, Eric L. Ding, E. Ray Dorsey, Kerrie E. Doyle, Tim R. Driscoll, Leilei Duan, Manisha Dubey, Bruce Bartholow Duncan, Hedyeh Ebrahimi, Aman Yesuf Endries, Sergey Petrovich Ermakov, Holly E. Erskine, Babak Eshrati, Alireza Esteghamati, Saman Fahimi, Talha A. Farid, Carla Sofia e.Sa Farinha, André Faro, Maryam S. Farvid, Farshad Farzadfar, Valery L. Feigin, Manuela Mendonca Felicio, Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Jefferson G. Fernandes, Joao C. Fernandes, Alize J. Ferrari, Florian Fischer, Joseph R.A. Fitchett, Christina Fitzmaurice, Nataliya Foigt, Kyle Foreman, F. Gerry R. Fowkes, Elisabeth Barboza Franca, Richard C. Franklin, Maya Fraser, Joseph Friedman, Joseph Frostad, Thomas Fürst, Belinda Gabbe, Alberto L. Garcia-Basteiro, Teshome Gebre, Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot, Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin, Alemseged Aregay Gebru, Bradford D. Gessner, Richard F. Gillum, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed Ginawi, Ababi Zergaw Giref, Maurice Giroud, Melkamu Dedefo Gishu, William Godwin, Philimon Gona, Amador Goodridge, Sameer Vali Gopalani, Carolyn C. Gotay, Atsushi Goto, Hebe N. Gouda, Nicholas Graetz, Karen Fern Greenwell, Max Griswold, Yuming Guo, Rahul Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Vipin Gupta, Reyna A. Gutiérrez, Bishal Gyawali, Juanita A. Haagsma, Annie Haakenstad, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Demewoz Haile, Gessessew Bugssa Hailu, Yara A. Halasa, Randah Ribhi Hamadeh, Samer Hamidi, Mouhanad Hammami, Graeme J. Hankey, Hilda L. Harb, Josep Maria Haro, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Rasmus Havmoeller, Ileana Beatriz Heredia-Pi, Hans W. Hoek, Masako Horino, Nobuyuki Horita, H. Dean Hosgood, Damian G. Hoy, Aung Soe Htet, Guoqing Hu, Hsiang Huang, Kim Moesgaard Iburg, Bulat T. Idrisov, Manami Inoue, Farhad Islami, Troy A. Jacobs, Kathryn H. Jacobsen, Nader Jahanmehr, Mihajlo B. Jakovljevic, Peter James, Henrica A.F.M. Jansen, Mehdi Javanbakht, Achala Upendra Jayatilleke, Sun Ha Jee, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Vivekanand Jha, Ying Jiang, Tariku Jibat, Ye Jin, Jost B. Jonas, Zubair Kabir, Yogeshwar Kalkonde, Ritul Kamal, Haidong Kan, Amit Kandel, André Karch, Corine Kakizi Karema, Chante Karimkhani, Palitha Karunapema, Amir Kasaeian, Nicholas J. Kassebaum, Anil Kaul, Norito Kawakami, Jeanne Françoise Kayibanda, Peter Njenga Keiyoro, Laura Kemmer, Andrew Haddon Kemp, Andre Pascal Kengne, Andre Keren, Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran, Yousef Saleh Khader, Abdur Rahman Khan, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Gulfaraz Khan, Young Ho Khang, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer Khoja, Ardeshir Khosravi, Jagdish Khubchandani, Christian Kieling, Cho il Kim, Daniel Kim, Sungroul Kim, Yun Jin Kim, Ruth W. Kimokoti, Niranjan Kissoon, Miia Kivipelto, Luke D. Knibbs, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Dhaval Kolte, Soewarta Kosen, Georgios A. Kotsakis, Parvaiz A. Koul, Ai Koyanagi, Michael Kravchenko, Hans Krueger, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Ricardo S. Kuchenbecker, Ernst J. Kuipers, Xie Rachel Kulikoff, Veena S. Kulkarni, G. Anil Kumar, Gene F. Kwan, Hmwe H. Kyu, Aparna Lal, Dharmesh Kumar Lal, Ratilal Lalloo, Hilton Lam, Qing Lan, Sinead M. Langan, Anders Larsson, Dennis Odai Laryea, Asma Abdul Latif, Janet L. Leasher, James Leigh, Mall Leinsalu, Janni Leung, Ricky Leung, Miriam Levi, Yichong Li, Yongmei Li, Margaret Lind, Shai Linn, Steven E. Lipshultz, Patrick Y. Liu, Shiwei Liu, Yang Liu, Belinda K. Lloyd, Loon Tzian Lo, Giancarlo Logroscino, Paulo A. Lotufo, Robyn M. Lucas, Raimundas Lunevicius, Mohammed Magdy Abd El Razek, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Mahdi Mahdavi, Marek Majdan, Azeem Majeed, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Chabila C. Mapoma, David Joel Margolis, Randall V. Martin, Jose Martinez-Raga, Felix Masiye, Amanda J. Mason-Jones, João Massano, Richard Matzopoulos, Bongani M. Mayosi, John J. McGrath, Martin McKee, Peter A. Meaney, Alem Mehari, Alemayehu B. Mekonnen, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Peter Memiah, Ziad A. Memish, Walter Mendoza, Gert B.M. Mensink, Atte Meretoja, Tuomo J. Meretoja, Yonatan Moges Mesfin, Francis Apolinary Mhimbira, Renata Micha, Ted R. Miller, Edward J. Mills, Mojde Mirarefin, Awoke Misganaw, Philip B. Mitchell, Charles N. Mock, Alireza Mohammadi, Shafiu Mohammed, Lorenzo Monasta, Jonathan de la Cruz Monis, Julio Cesar Montañez Hernandez, Marcella Montico, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Lidia Morawska, Rintaro Mori, Ulrich O. Mueller, Michele E. Murdoch, Brighton Murimira, Joseph Murray, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana Murthy, Srinivas Murthy, Kamarul Imran Musa, Jean B. Nachega, Gabriele Nagel, Kovin S. Naidoo, Luigi Naldi, Vinay Nangia, Bruce Neal, Chakib Nejjari, Charles R. Newton, John N. Newton, Frida Namnyak Ngalesoni, Peter Nguhiu, Grant Nguyen, Quyen Le Nguyen, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie Pete, Sandra Nolte, Marika Nomura, Ole F. Norheim, Bo Norrving, Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, In Hwan Oh, Olanrewaju Oladimeji, Pedro R. Olivares, Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun Olusanya, John Nelson Opio, Eyal Oren, Alberto Ortiz, Richard H. Osborne, Erika Ota, Mayowa O. Owolabi, Mahesh PA, Eun Kee Park, Hye Youn Park, Charles D. Parry, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Tejas Patel, Vikram Patel, Angel J.Paternina Caicedo, Snehal T. Patil, Scott B. Patten, George C. Patton, Deepak Paudel, João Mário Pedro, David M. Pereira, Norberto Perico, Konrad Pesudovs, Max Petzold, Michael Robert Phillips, Frédéric B. Piel, Julian David Pillay, Christine Pinho, Farhad Pishgar, Suzanne Polinder, Richie G. Poulton, Farshad Pourmalek, Mostafa Qorbani, Rynaz H.S. Rabiee, Amir Radfar, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Mahfuzar Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Sasa Rajsic, Murugesan Raju, Usha Ram, Saleem M. Rana, Chhabi Lal Ranabhat, Kavitha Ranganathan, Puja C. Rao, Amany H. Refaat, Marissa B. Reitsma, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Serge Resnikoff, Antonio L. Ribeiro, Maria Jesus Rios Blancas, Hirbo Shore Roba, Bayard Roberts, Alina Rodriguez, David Rojas-Rueda, Luca Ronfani, Gholamreza Roshandel, Gregory A. Roth, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Ambuj Roy, Nobhojit Roy, Ben Benasco Sackey, Rajesh Sagar, Muhammad Muhammad Saleh, Juan R. Sanabria, Damian F. Santomauro, Itamar S. Santos, Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suarez, Benn Sartorius, Maheswar Satpathy, Miloje Savic, Monika Sawhney, Susan M. Sawyer, Josef Schmidhuber, Maria Inês Schmidt, Ione J.C. Schneider, Aletta E. Schutte, David C. Schwebel, Soraya Seedat, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Edson E. Servan-Mori, Katya Shackelford, Amira Shaheen, Masood Ali Shaikh, Teresa Shamah Levy, Rajesh Sharma, Jun She, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Jiabin Shen, Kevin N. Sheth, Muki Shey, Peilin Shi, Kenji Shibuya, Mika Shigematsu, Min Jeong Shin, Rahman Shiri, Kawkab Shishani, Ivy Shiue, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, Naris Silpakit, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Jonathan I. Silverberg, Edgar P. Simard, Shireen Sindi, Abhishek Singh, Gitanjali M. Singh, Jasvinder A. Singh, Om Prakash Singh, Prashant Kumar Singh, Vegard Skirbekk, Amber Sligar, Samir Soneji, Kjetil Søreide, Reed J.D. Sorensen, Joan B. Soriano, Sergey Soshnikov, Luciano A. Sposato, Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Hans Christian Stahl, Jeffrey D. Stanaway, Vasiliki Stathopoulou, Nadine Steckling, Nicholas Steel, Dan J. Stein, Caitlyn Steiner, Heidi Stöckl, Saverio Stranges, Mark Strong, Jiandong Sun, Bruno F. Sunguya, Patrick Sur, Soumya Swaminathan, Bryan L. Sykes, Cassandra E.I. Szoeke, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Karen M. Tabb, Roberto Tchio Talongwa, Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Bineyam Taye, Hugh R. Taylor, Bemnet Amare Tedla, Worku Tefera, Teketo Kassaw Tegegne, Dejen Yemane Tekle, Girma Temam Shifa, Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, J. S. Thakur, Alan J. Thomson, Andrew L. Thorne-Lyman, Amanda G. Thrift, George D. Thurston, Taavi Tillmann, Ruoyan Tobe-Gai, Marcello Tonelli, Roman Topor-Madry, Fotis Topouzis, Bach Xuan Tran, Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene, Abera Kenay Tura, Emin Murat Tuzcu, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Chigozie Jesse Uneke, Olalekan A. Uthman, Aaron van Donkelaar, Yuri Y. Varakin, Tommi Vasankari, Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos, J. Lennert Veerman, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Raj Kumar Verma, Francesco S. Violante, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov, Patricia Volkow, Stein Emil Vollset, Gregory R. Wagner, Mitchell T. Wallin, Linhong Wang, Valentine Wanga, David A. Watkins, Scott Weichenthal, Elisabete Weiderpass, Robert G. Weintraub, Daniel J. Weiss, Andrea Werdecker, Ronny Westerman, Harvey A. Whiteford, James D. Wilkinson, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Charles D.A. Wolfe, Ingrid Wolfe, Sungho Won, Anthony D. Woolf, Shimelash Bitew Workie, Mamo Wubshet, Gelin Xu, Ajit Kumar Yadav, Bereket Yakob, Ayalnesh Zemene Yalew, Lijing L. Yan, Yuichiro Yano, Mehdi Yaseri, Pengpeng Ye, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Seok Jun Yoon, Mustafa Z. Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Zoubida Zaidi, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Tomas Zapata, Elias Asfaw Zegeye, Yi Zhao, Maigeng Zhou, Sanjay Zodpey, David Zonies, Christopher J.L. Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

167 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). Methods We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990 and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed as the geometric mean of the rescaled indicators by SDG target. We used spline regressions to examine the relations between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI, a summary measure based on average income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate) and each of the health-related SDG indicators and indices. Findings In 2015, the median health-related SDG index was 59·3 (95% uncertainty interval 56·8–61·8) and varied widely by country, ranging from 85·5 (84·2–86·5) in Iceland to 20·4 (15·4–24·9) in Central African Republic. SDI was a good predictor of the health-related SDG index (r2=0·88) and the MDG index (r2=0·92), whereas the non-MDG index had a weaker relation with SDI (r2=0·79). Between 2000 and 2015, the health-related SDG index improved by a median of 7·9 (IQR 5·0–10·4), and gains on the MDG index (a median change of 10·0 [6·7–13·1]) exceeded that of the non-MDG index (a median change of 5·5 [2·1–8·9]). Since 2000, pronounced progress occurred for indicators such as met need with modern contraception, under-5 mortality, and neonatal mortality, as well as the indicator for universal health coverage tracer interventions. Moderate improvements were found for indicators such as HIV and tuberculosis incidence, minimal changes for hepatitis B incidence took place, and childhood overweight considerably worsened. Interpretation GBD provides an independent, comparable avenue for monitoring progress towards the health-related SDGs. Our analysis not only highlights the importance of income, education, and fertility as drivers of health improvement but also emphasises that investments in these areas alone will not be sufficient. Although considerable progress on the health-related MDG indicators has been made, these gains will need to be sustained and, in many cases, accelerated to achieve the ambitious SDG targets. The minimal improvement in or worsening of health-related indicators beyond the MDGs highlight the need for additional resources to effectively address the expanded scope of the health-related SDGs. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1813-1850
Number of pages38
JournalThe Lancet
Volume388
Issue number10053
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Oct 2016

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Conservation of Natural Resources
Health
Global Burden of Disease
Central African Republic
Universal Coverage
Iceland
United Nations
Birth Rate
Incidence
Infant Mortality
Hepatitis B
Contraception
Uncertainty
Fertility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Lim, S. S., Allen, K., Bhutta, Z. A., Dandona, L., Forouzanfar, M. H., Fullman, N., ... Murray, C. J. L. (2016). Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet, 388(10053), 1813-1850. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31467-2

Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries : a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. / Lim, Stephen S.; Allen, Kate; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Dandona, Lalit; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Hay, Simon I.; Holmberg, Mollie; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Larson, Heidi J.; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lopez, Alan D.; Lozano, Rafael; McNellan, Claire R.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Olsen, Helen E.; Pigott, David M.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Vos, Theo; Wang, Haidong; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abraham, Biju; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.E.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Achoki, Tom; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Afshin, Ashkan; Agarwal, Arnav; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Kedir Yimam; Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Uzma; Alasfoor, Deena; AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Aldridge, Robert William; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alkhateeb, Mohammad AB; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Christine; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Andersen, Hjalte H.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Anderson, Gregory M.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Ärnlöv, Johan; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Barber, Ryan; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Bärnighausen, Till; Barrero, Lope H.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basu, Sanjay; Bayou, Tigist Assefa; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Béjot, Yannick; Bell, Michelle L.; Bello, Aminu K.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabé, Eduardo; Bernal, Oscar Alberto; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhatt, Samir; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bienhoff, Kelly A.; Bikbov, Boris; Binagwaho, Agnes; Bisanzio, Donal; Bjertness, Espen; Blore, Jed; Bourne, Rupert R.A.; Brainin, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; Broday, David M.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Butt, Zahid A.; Cahill, Leah E.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Carabin, Hélène; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Cecílio, Pedro; Chang, Hsing Yi; Chang, Jung Chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Che, Xuan; Chen, Alan Zian; Chiang, Peggy Pei Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee Young Jasmine; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Aburaddad, Laith; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cohen, Aaron J.; Cooke, Graham S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Crump, John A.; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; Neves, José das; Davis, Adrian C.; Davletov, Kairat; de Castro, E. Filipa; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Gobbo, Liana C.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Deshpande, Aniruddha; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Dey, Subhojit; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet K.; Ding, Eric L.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Farid, Talha A.; Farinha, Carla Sofia e.Sa; Faro, André; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Felicio, Manuela Mendonca; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Fernandes, Joao C.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph R.A.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franca, Elisabeth Barboza; Franklin, Richard C.; Fraser, Maya; Friedman, Joseph; Frostad, Joseph; Fürst, Thomas; Gabbe, Belinda; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebre, Teshome; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Godwin, William; Gona, Philimon; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Graetz, Nicholas; Greenwell, Karen Fern; Griswold, Max; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Gutiérrez, Reyna A.; Gyawali, Bishal; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Haakenstad, Annie; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Haile, Demewoz; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Harb, Hilda L.; Haro, Josep Maria; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Hoek, Hans W.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Htet, Aung Soe; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Hsiang; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Jacobs, Troy A.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; James, Peter; Jansen, Henrica A.F.M.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jin, Ye; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Kandel, Amit; Karch, André; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karimkhani, Chante; Karunapema, Palitha; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kayibanda, Jeanne Françoise; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemmer, Laura; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young Ho; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Cho il; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kosen, Soewarta; Kotsakis, Georgios A.; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael; Krueger, Hans; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kuchenbecker, Ricardo S.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulikoff, Xie Rachel; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Lal, Aparna; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Langan, Sinead M.; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis Odai; Latif, Asma Abdul; Leasher, Janet L.; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Janni; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Lind, Margaret; Linn, Shai; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lo, Loon Tzian; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; El Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Margolis, David Joel; Martin, Randall V.; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Massano, João; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; McGrath, John J.; McKee, Martin; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehari, Alem; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensink, Gert B.M.; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mesfin, Yonatan Moges; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mirarefin, Mojde; Misganaw, Awoke; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; de la Cruz Monis, Jonathan; Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murimira, Brighton; Murray, Joseph; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Murthy, Srinivas; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Nachega, Jean B.; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Newton, Charles R.; Newton, John N.; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Nguhiu, Peter; Nguyen, Grant; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Pete, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie; Nolte, Sandra; Nomura, Marika; Norheim, Ole F.; Norrving, Bo; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Osborne, Richard H.; Ota, Erika; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; PA, Mahesh; Park, Eun Kee; Park, Hye Youn; Parry, Charles D.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Patel, Tejas; Patel, Vikram; Caicedo, Angel J.Paternina; Patil, Snehal T.; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paudel, Deepak; Pedro, João Mário; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Piel, Frédéric B.; Pillay, Julian David; Pinho, Christine; Pishgar, Farhad; Polinder, Suzanne; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rabiee, Rynaz H.S.; Radfar, Amir; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Raju, Murugesan; Ram, Usha; Rana, Saleem M.; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Rao, Puja C.; Refaat, Amany H.; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Blancas, Maria Jesus Rios; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Roberts, Bayard; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Ambuj; Roy, Nobhojit; Sackey, Ben Benasco; Sagar, Rajesh; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Santomauro, Damian F.; Santos, Itamar S.; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savic, Miloje; Sawhney, Monika; Sawyer, Susan M.; Schmidhuber, Josef; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Schneider, Ione J.C.; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya; Shaheen, Amira; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shen, Jiabin; Sheth, Kevin N.; Shey, Muki; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Min Jeong; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silpakit, Naris; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Om Prakash; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sligar, Amber; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Sorensen, Reed J.D.; Soriano, Joan B.; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stahl, Hans Christian; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Stöckl, Heidi; Stranges, Saverio; Strong, Mark; Sun, Jiandong; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Szoeke, Cassandra E.I.; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Taylor, Hugh R.; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Tefera, Worku; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Tekle, Dejen Yemane; Shifa, Girma Temam; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, J. 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Lennert; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Verma, Raj Kumar; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Volkow, Patricia; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Linhong; Wanga, Valentine; Watkins, David A.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D.A.; Wolfe, Ingrid; Won, Sungho; Woolf, Anthony D.; Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Wubshet, Mamo; Xu, Gelin; Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Yakob, Bereket; Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Ye, Pengpeng; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Zapata, Tomas; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Zhao, Yi; Zhou, Maigeng; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zonies, David; Murray, Christopher J.L.

In: The Lancet, Vol. 388, No. 10053, 08.10.2016, p. 1813-1850.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Lennert ; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy ; Verma, Raj Kumar ; Violante, Francesco S. ; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich ; Volkow, Patricia ; Vollset, Stein Emil ; Wagner, Gregory R. ; Wallin, Mitchell T. ; Wang, Linhong ; Wanga, Valentine ; Watkins, David A. ; Weichenthal, Scott ; Weiderpass, Elisabete ; Weintraub, Robert G. ; Weiss, Daniel J. ; Werdecker, Andrea ; Westerman, Ronny ; Whiteford, Harvey A. ; Wilkinson, James D. ; Wiysonge, Charles Shey ; Wolfe, Charles D.A. ; Wolfe, Ingrid ; Won, Sungho ; Woolf, Anthony D. ; Workie, Shimelash Bitew ; Wubshet, Mamo ; Xu, Gelin ; Yadav, Ajit Kumar ; Yakob, Bereket ; Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene ; Yan, Lijing L. ; Yano, Yuichiro ; Yaseri, Mehdi ; Ye, Pengpeng ; Yip, Paul ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Yoon, Seok Jun ; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa ; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos ; Zapata, Tomas ; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw ; Zhao, Yi ; Zhou, Maigeng ; Zodpey, Sanjay ; Zonies, David ; Murray, Christopher J.L. / Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries : a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. In: The Lancet. 2016 ; Vol. 388, No. 10053. pp. 1813-1850.
@article{d63c4c85dab5452885cbcec9a34d9cbc,
title = "Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015",
abstract = "Background In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). Methods We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990 and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed as the geometric mean of the rescaled indicators by SDG target. We used spline regressions to examine the relations between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI, a summary measure based on average income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate) and each of the health-related SDG indicators and indices. Findings In 2015, the median health-related SDG index was 59·3 (95{\%} uncertainty interval 56·8–61·8) and varied widely by country, ranging from 85·5 (84·2–86·5) in Iceland to 20·4 (15·4–24·9) in Central African Republic. SDI was a good predictor of the health-related SDG index (r2=0·88) and the MDG index (r2=0·92), whereas the non-MDG index had a weaker relation with SDI (r2=0·79). Between 2000 and 2015, the health-related SDG index improved by a median of 7·9 (IQR 5·0–10·4), and gains on the MDG index (a median change of 10·0 [6·7–13·1]) exceeded that of the non-MDG index (a median change of 5·5 [2·1–8·9]). Since 2000, pronounced progress occurred for indicators such as met need with modern contraception, under-5 mortality, and neonatal mortality, as well as the indicator for universal health coverage tracer interventions. Moderate improvements were found for indicators such as HIV and tuberculosis incidence, minimal changes for hepatitis B incidence took place, and childhood overweight considerably worsened. Interpretation GBD provides an independent, comparable avenue for monitoring progress towards the health-related SDGs. Our analysis not only highlights the importance of income, education, and fertility as drivers of health improvement but also emphasises that investments in these areas alone will not be sufficient. Although considerable progress on the health-related MDG indicators has been made, these gains will need to be sustained and, in many cases, accelerated to achieve the ambitious SDG targets. The minimal improvement in or worsening of health-related indicators beyond the MDGs highlight the need for additional resources to effectively address the expanded scope of the health-related SDGs. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.",
author = "Lim, {Stephen S.} and Kate Allen and Bhutta, {Zulfiqar A.} and Lalit Dandona and Forouzanfar, {Mohammad H.} and Nancy Fullman and Gething, {Peter W.} and Goldberg, {Ellen M.} and Hay, {Simon I.} and Mollie Holmberg and Yohannes Kinfu and Kutz, {Michael J.} and Larson, {Heidi J.} and Xiaofeng Liang and Lopez, {Alan D.} and Rafael Lozano and McNellan, {Claire R.} and Mokdad, {Ali H.} and Mooney, {Meghan D.} and Mohsen Naghavi and Olsen, {Helen E.} and Pigott, {David M.} and Salomon, {Joshua A.} and Theo Vos and Haidong Wang and Abajobir, {Amanuel Alemu} and Abate, {Kalkidan Hassen} and Cristiana Abbafati and Abbas, {Kaja M.} and Foad Abd-Allah and Abdulle, {Abdishakur M.} and Biju Abraham and Ibrahim Abubakar and Abu-Raddad, {Laith J.} and Abu-Rmeileh, {Niveen M.E.} and Abyu, {Gebre Yitayih} and Tom Achoki and Adebiyi, {Akindele Olupelumi} and Adedeji, {Isaac Akinkunmi} and Afanvi, {Kossivi Agbelenko} and Ashkan Afshin and Arnav Agarwal and Anurag Agrawal and Kiadaliri, {Aliasghar Ahmad} and Hamid Ahmadieh and Ahmed, {Kedir Yimam} and Akanda, {Ali Shafqat} and Akinyemi, {Rufus Olusola} and Akinyemiju, {Tomi F.} and Nadia Akseer and Ziyad Al-Aly and Khurshid Alam and Uzma Alam and Deena Alasfoor and AlBuhairan, {Fadia S.} and Aldhahri, {Saleh Fahed} and Aldridge, {Robert William} and Alemu, {Zewdie Aderaw} and Raghib Ali and Ala'a Alkerwi and Alkhateeb, {Mohammad AB} and Fran{\cc}ois Alla and Peter Allebeck and Christine Allen and Rajaa Al-Raddadi and Altirkawi, {Khalid A.} and Martin, {Elena Alvarez} and Nelson Alvis-Guzman and Amare, {Azmeraw T.} and Alemayehu Amberbir and Amegah, {Adeladza Kofi} and Heresh Amini and Walid Ammar and Amrock, {Stephen Marc} and Andersen, {Hjalte H.} and Anderson, {Benjamin O.} and Anderson, {Gregory M.} and Antonio, {Carl Abelardo T.} and Palwasha Anwari and Johan {\"A}rnl{\"o}v and Al Artaman and Hamid Asayesh and Asghar, {Rana Jawad} and Suleman Atique and Avokpaho, {Euripide Frinel G.Arthur} and Ashish Awasthi and Quintanilla, {Beatriz Paulina Ayala} and Peter Azzopardi and Umar Bacha and Alaa Badawi and Kalpana Balakrishnan and Amitava Banerjee and Aleksandra Barac and Ryan Barber and Barker-Collo, {Suzanne L.} and Till B{\"a}rnighausen and Barrero, {Lope H.} and Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez and Sanjay Basu and Bayou, {Tigist Assefa} and Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi and Justin Beardsley and Neeraj Bedi and Ettore Beghi and Yannick B{\'e}jot and Bell, {Michelle L.} and Bello, {Aminu K.} and Bennett, {Derrick A.} and Bensenor, {Isabela M.} and Habib Benzian and Adugnaw Berhane and Eduardo Bernab{\'e} and Bernal, {Oscar Alberto} and Betsu, {Balem Demtsu} and Beyene, {Addisu Shunu} and Neeraj Bhala and Samir Bhatt and Sibhatu Biadgilign and Bienhoff, {Kelly A.} and Boris Bikbov and Agnes Binagwaho and Donal Bisanzio and Espen Bjertness and Jed Blore and Bourne, {Rupert R.A.} and Michael Brainin and Michael Brauer and Alexandra Brazinova and Breitborde, {Nicholas J.K.} and Broday, {David M.} and Brugha, {Traolach S.} and Rachelle Buchbinder and Butt, {Zahid A.} and Cahill, {Leah E.} and Campos-Nonato, {Ismael Ricardo} and Campuzano, {Julio Cesar} and H{\'e}l{\`e}ne Carabin and Rosario C{\'a}rdenas and Carrero, {Juan Jesus} and Austin Carter and Daniel Casey and Valeria Caso and Casta{\~n}eda-Orjuela, {Carlos A.} and Rivas, {Jacqueline Castillo} and Ferr{\'a}n Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and Fiorella Cavalleri and Pedro Cec{\'i}lio and Chang, {Hsing Yi} and Chang, {Jung Chen} and Charlson, {Fiona J.} and Xuan Che and Chen, {Alan Zian} and Chiang, {Peggy Pei Chia} and Mirriam Chibalabala and Chisumpa, {Vesper Hichilombwe} and Choi, {Jee Young Jasmine} and Rajiv Chowdhury and Hanne Christensen and Laith Aburaddad and Massimo Cirillo and Coates, {Matthew M.} and Megan Coggeshall and Cohen, {Aaron J.} and Cooke, {Graham S.} and Cyrus Cooper and Cooper, {Leslie Trumbull} and Cowie, {Benjamin C.} and Crump, {John A.} and Damtew, {Solomon Abrha} and Rakhi Dandona and Dargan, {Paul I.} and Neves, {Jos{\'e} das} and Davis, {Adrian C.} and Kairat Davletov and {de Castro}, {E. Filipa} and {De Leo}, Diego and Louisa Degenhardt and {Del Gobbo}, {Liana C.} and Kebede Deribe and Sarah Derrett and {Des Jarlais}, {Don C.} and Aniruddha Deshpande and deVeber, {Gabrielle A.} and Subhojit Dey and Dharmaratne, {Samath D.} and Dhillon, {Preet K.} and Ding, {Eric L.} and Dorsey, {E. Ray} and Doyle, {Kerrie E.} and Driscoll, {Tim R.} and Leilei Duan and Manisha Dubey and Duncan, {Bruce Bartholow} and Hedyeh Ebrahimi and Endries, {Aman Yesuf} and Ermakov, {Sergey Petrovich} and Erskine, {Holly E.} and Babak Eshrati and Alireza Esteghamati and Saman Fahimi and Farid, {Talha A.} and Farinha, {Carla Sofia e.Sa} and Andr{\'e} Faro and Farvid, {Maryam S.} and Farshad Farzadfar and Feigin, {Valery L.} and Felicio, {Manuela Mendonca} and Fereshtehnejad, {Seyed Mohammad} and Fernandes, {Jefferson G.} and Fernandes, {Joao C.} and Ferrari, {Alize J.} and Florian Fischer and Fitchett, {Joseph R.A.} and Christina Fitzmaurice and Nataliya Foigt and Kyle Foreman and Fowkes, {F. Gerry R.} and Franca, {Elisabeth Barboza} and Franklin, {Richard C.} and Maya Fraser and Joseph Friedman and Joseph Frostad and Thomas F{\"u}rst and Belinda Gabbe and Garcia-Basteiro, {Alberto L.} and Teshome Gebre and Gebrehiwot, {Tsegaye Tewelde} and Gebremedhin, {Amanuel Tesfay} and Gebru, {Alemseged Aregay} and Gessner, {Bradford D.} and Gillum, {Richard F.} and Ginawi, {Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed} and Giref, {Ababi Zergaw} and Maurice Giroud and Gishu, {Melkamu Dedefo} and William Godwin and Philimon Gona and Amador Goodridge and Gopalani, {Sameer Vali} and Gotay, {Carolyn C.} and Atsushi Goto and Gouda, {Hebe N.} and Nicholas Graetz and Greenwell, {Karen Fern} and Max Griswold and Yuming Guo and Rahul Gupta and Rajeev Gupta and Vipin Gupta and Guti{\'e}rrez, {Reyna A.} and Bishal Gyawali and Haagsma, {Juanita A.} and Annie Haakenstad and Nima Hafezi-Nejad and Demewoz Haile and Hailu, {Gessessew Bugssa} and Halasa, {Yara A.} and Hamadeh, {Randah Ribhi} and Samer Hamidi and Mouhanad Hammami and Hankey, {Graeme J.} and Harb, {Hilda L.} and Haro, {Josep Maria} and Hassanvand, {Mohammad Sadegh} and Rasmus Havmoeller and Heredia-Pi, {Ileana Beatriz} and Hoek, {Hans W.} and Masako Horino and Nobuyuki Horita and Hosgood, {H. Dean} and Hoy, {Damian G.} and Htet, {Aung Soe} and Guoqing Hu and Hsiang Huang and Iburg, {Kim Moesgaard} and Idrisov, {Bulat T.} and Manami Inoue and Farhad Islami and Jacobs, {Troy A.} and Jacobsen, {Kathryn H.} and Nader Jahanmehr and Jakovljevic, {Mihajlo B.} and Peter James and Jansen, {Henrica A.F.M.} and Mehdi Javanbakht and Jayatilleke, {Achala Upendra} and Jee, {Sun Ha} and Panniyammakal Jeemon and Vivekanand Jha and Ying Jiang and Tariku Jibat and Ye Jin and Jonas, {Jost B.} and Zubair Kabir and Yogeshwar Kalkonde and Ritul Kamal and Haidong Kan and Amit Kandel and Andr{\'e} Karch and Karema, {Corine Kakizi} and Chante Karimkhani and Palitha Karunapema and Amir Kasaeian and Kassebaum, {Nicholas J.} and Anil Kaul and Norito Kawakami and Kayibanda, {Jeanne Fran{\cc}oise} and Keiyoro, {Peter Njenga} and Laura Kemmer and Kemp, {Andrew Haddon} and Kengne, {Andre Pascal} and Andre Keren and Kesavachandran, {Chandrasekharan Nair} and Khader, {Yousef Saleh} and Khan, {Abdur Rahman} and Khan, {Ejaz Ahmad} and Gulfaraz Khan and Khang, {Young Ho} and Khoja, {Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer} and Ardeshir Khosravi and Jagdish Khubchandani and Christian Kieling and Kim, {Cho il} and Daniel Kim and Sungroul Kim and Kim, {Yun Jin} and Kimokoti, {Ruth W.} and Niranjan Kissoon and Miia Kivipelto and Knibbs, {Luke D.} and Yoshihiro Kokubo and Dhaval Kolte and Soewarta Kosen and Kotsakis, {Georgios A.} and Koul, {Parvaiz A.} and Ai Koyanagi and Michael Kravchenko and Hans Krueger and Defo, {Barthelemy Kuate} and Kuchenbecker, {Ricardo S.} and Kuipers, {Ernst J.} and Kulikoff, {Xie Rachel} and Kulkarni, {Veena S.} and Kumar, {G. Anil} and Kwan, {Gene F.} and Kyu, {Hmwe H.} and Aparna Lal and Lal, {Dharmesh Kumar} and Ratilal Lalloo and Hilton Lam and Qing Lan and Langan, {Sinead M.} and Anders Larsson and Laryea, {Dennis Odai} and Latif, {Asma Abdul} and Leasher, {Janet L.} and James Leigh and Mall Leinsalu and Janni Leung and Ricky Leung and Miriam Levi and Yichong Li and Yongmei Li and Margaret Lind and Shai Linn and Lipshultz, {Steven E.} and Liu, {Patrick Y.} and Shiwei Liu and Yang Liu and Lloyd, {Belinda K.} and Lo, {Loon Tzian} and Giancarlo Logroscino and Lotufo, {Paulo A.} and Lucas, {Robyn M.} and Raimundas Lunevicius and {El Razek}, {Mohammed Magdy Abd} and Carlos Magis-Rodriguez and Mahdi Mahdavi and Marek Majdan and Azeem Majeed and Reza Malekzadeh and Malta, {Deborah Carvalho} and Mapoma, {Chabila C.} and Margolis, {David Joel} and Martin, {Randall V.} and Jose Martinez-Raga and Felix Masiye and Mason-Jones, {Amanda J.} and Jo{\~a}o Massano and Richard Matzopoulos and Mayosi, {Bongani M.} and McGrath, {John J.} and Martin McKee and Meaney, {Peter A.} and Alem Mehari and Mekonnen, {Alemayehu B.} and Melaku, {Yohannes Adama} and Peter Memiah and Memish, {Ziad A.} and Walter Mendoza and Mensink, {Gert B.M.} and Atte Meretoja and Meretoja, {Tuomo J.} and Mesfin, {Yonatan Moges} and Mhimbira, {Francis Apolinary} and Renata Micha and Miller, {Ted R.} and Mills, {Edward J.} and Mojde Mirarefin and Awoke Misganaw and Mitchell, {Philip B.} and Mock, {Charles N.} and Alireza Mohammadi and Shafiu Mohammed and Lorenzo Monasta and {de la Cruz Monis}, Jonathan and Hernandez, {Julio Cesar Monta{\~n}ez} and Marcella Montico and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh and Lidia Morawska and Rintaro Mori and Mueller, {Ulrich O.} and Murdoch, {Michele E.} and Brighton Murimira and Joseph Murray and Murthy, {Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana} and Srinivas Murthy and Musa, {Kamarul Imran} and Nachega, {Jean B.} and Gabriele Nagel and Naidoo, {Kovin S.} and Luigi Naldi and Vinay Nangia and Bruce Neal and Chakib Nejjari and Newton, {Charles R.} and Newton, {John N.} and Ngalesoni, {Frida Namnyak} and Peter Nguhiu and Grant Nguyen and {Le Nguyen}, Quyen and Nisar, {Muhammad Imran} and Pete, {Patrick Martial Nkamedjie} and Sandra Nolte and Marika Nomura and Norheim, {Ole F.} and Bo Norrving and Obermeyer, {Carla Makhlouf} and Ogbo, {Felix Akpojene} and Oh, {In Hwan} and Olanrewaju Oladimeji and Olivares, {Pedro R.} and Olusanya, {Bolajoko Olubukunola} and Olusanya, {Jacob Olusegun} and Opio, {John Nelson} and Eyal Oren and Alberto Ortiz and Osborne, {Richard H.} and Erika Ota and Owolabi, {Mayowa O.} and Mahesh PA and Park, {Eun Kee} and Park, {Hye Youn} and Parry, {Charles D.} and Mahboubeh Parsaeian and Tejas Patel and Vikram Patel and Caicedo, {Angel J.Paternina} and Patil, {Snehal T.} and Patten, {Scott B.} and Patton, {George C.} and Deepak Paudel and Pedro, {Jo{\~a}o M{\'a}rio} and Pereira, {David M.} and Norberto Perico and Konrad Pesudovs and Max Petzold and Phillips, {Michael Robert} and Piel, {Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric B.} and Pillay, {Julian David} and Christine Pinho and Farhad Pishgar and Suzanne Polinder and Poulton, {Richie G.} and Farshad Pourmalek and Mostafa Qorbani and Rabiee, {Rynaz H.S.} and Amir Radfar and Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar and Mahfuzar Rahman and Rahman, {Mohammad Hifz Ur} and Rahman, {Sajjad Ur} and Rai, {Rajesh Kumar} and Sasa Rajsic and Murugesan Raju and Usha Ram and Rana, {Saleem M.} and Ranabhat, {Chhabi Lal} and Kavitha Ranganathan and Rao, {Puja C.} and Refaat, {Amany H.} and Reitsma, {Marissa B.} and Giuseppe Remuzzi and Serge Resnikoff and Ribeiro, {Antonio L.} and Blancas, {Maria Jesus Rios} and Roba, {Hirbo Shore} and Bayard Roberts and Alina Rodriguez and David Rojas-Rueda and Luca Ronfani and Gholamreza Roshandel and Roth, {Gregory A.} and Dietrich Rothenbacher and Ambuj Roy and Nobhojit Roy and Sackey, {Ben Benasco} and Rajesh Sagar and Saleh, {Muhammad Muhammad} and Sanabria, {Juan R.} and Santomauro, {Damian F.} and Santos, {Itamar S.} and Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suarez and Benn Sartorius and Maheswar Satpathy and Miloje Savic and Monika Sawhney and Sawyer, {Susan M.} and Josef Schmidhuber and Schmidt, {Maria In{\^e}s} and Schneider, {Ione J.C.} and Schutte, {Aletta E.} and Schwebel, {David C.} and Soraya Seedat and Sepanlou, {Sadaf G.} and Servan-Mori, {Edson E.} and Katya Shackelford and Amira Shaheen and Shaikh, {Masood Ali} and Levy, {Teresa Shamah} and Rajesh Sharma and Jun She and Sara Sheikhbahaei and Jiabin Shen and Sheth, {Kevin N.} and Muki Shey and Peilin Shi and Kenji Shibuya and Mika Shigematsu and Shin, {Min Jeong} and Rahman Shiri and Kawkab Shishani and Ivy Shiue and Sigfusdottir, {Inga Dora} and Naris Silpakit and Silva, {Diego Augusto Santos} and Silverberg, {Jonathan I.} and Simard, {Edgar P.} and Shireen Sindi and Abhishek Singh and Singh, {Gitanjali M.} and Singh, {Jasvinder A.} and Singh, {Om Prakash} and Singh, {Prashant Kumar} and Vegard Skirbekk and Amber Sligar and Samir Soneji and Kjetil S{\o}reide and Sorensen, {Reed J.D.} and Soriano, {Joan B.} and Sergey Soshnikov and Sposato, {Luciano A.} and Sreeramareddy, {Chandrashekhar T.} and Stahl, {Hans Christian} and Stanaway, {Jeffrey D.} and Vasiliki Stathopoulou and Nadine Steckling and Nicholas Steel and Stein, {Dan J.} and Caitlyn Steiner and Heidi St{\"o}ckl and Saverio Stranges and Mark Strong and Jiandong Sun and Sunguya, {Bruno F.} and Patrick Sur and Soumya Swaminathan and Sykes, {Bryan L.} and Szoeke, {Cassandra E.I.} and Rafael Tabar{\'e}s-Seisdedos and Tabb, {Karen M.} and Talongwa, {Roberto Tchio} and Tarawneh, {Mohammed Rasoul} and Mohammad Tavakkoli and Bineyam Taye and Taylor, {Hugh R.} and Tedla, {Bemnet Amare} and Worku Tefera and Tegegne, {Teketo Kassaw} and Tekle, {Dejen Yemane} and Shifa, {Girma Temam} and Terkawi, {Abdullah Sulieman} and Tessema, {Gizachew Assefa} and Thakur, {J. S.} and Thomson, {Alan J.} and Thorne-Lyman, {Andrew L.} and Thrift, {Amanda G.} and Thurston, {George D.} and Taavi Tillmann and Ruoyan Tobe-Gai and Marcello Tonelli and Roman Topor-Madry and Fotis Topouzis and Tran, {Bach Xuan} and Dimbuene, {Zacharie Tsala} and Tura, {Abera Kenay} and Tuzcu, {Emin Murat} and Stefanos Tyrovolas and Ukwaja, {Kingsley Nnanna} and Undurraga, {Eduardo A.} and Uneke, {Chigozie Jesse} and Uthman, {Olalekan A.} and {van Donkelaar}, Aaron and Varakin, {Yuri Y.} and Tommi Vasankari and Vasconcelos, {Ana Maria Nogales} and Veerman, {J. Lennert} and Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian and Verma, {Raj Kumar} and Violante, {Francesco S.} and Vlassov, {Vasiliy Victorovich} and Patricia Volkow and Vollset, {Stein Emil} and Wagner, {Gregory R.} and Wallin, {Mitchell T.} and Linhong Wang and Valentine Wanga and Watkins, {David A.} and Scott Weichenthal and Elisabete Weiderpass and Weintraub, {Robert G.} and Weiss, {Daniel J.} and Andrea Werdecker and Ronny Westerman and Whiteford, {Harvey A.} and Wilkinson, {James D.} and Wiysonge, {Charles Shey} and Wolfe, {Charles D.A.} and Ingrid Wolfe and Sungho Won and Woolf, {Anthony D.} and Workie, {Shimelash Bitew} and Mamo Wubshet and Gelin Xu and Yadav, {Ajit Kumar} and Bereket Yakob and Yalew, {Ayalnesh Zemene} and Yan, {Lijing L.} and Yuichiro Yano and Mehdi Yaseri and Pengpeng Ye and Paul Yip and Naohiro Yonemoto and Yoon, {Seok Jun} and Younis, {Mustafa Z.} and Chuanhua Yu and Zoubida Zaidi and {El Sayed Zaki}, Maysaa and Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio and Tomas Zapata and Zegeye, {Elias Asfaw} and Yi Zhao and Maigeng Zhou and Sanjay Zodpey and David Zonies and Murray, {Christopher J.L.}",
year = "2016",
month = "10",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31467-2",
language = "English",
volume = "388",
pages = "1813--1850",
journal = "The Lancet",
issn = "0140-6736",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "10053",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries

T2 - a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

AU - Lim, Stephen S.

AU - Allen, Kate

AU - Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

AU - Dandona, Lalit

AU - Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.

AU - Fullman, Nancy

AU - Gething, Peter W.

AU - Goldberg, Ellen M.

AU - Hay, Simon I.

AU - Holmberg, Mollie

AU - Kinfu, Yohannes

AU - Kutz, Michael J.

AU - Larson, Heidi J.

AU - Liang, Xiaofeng

AU - Lopez, Alan D.

AU - Lozano, Rafael

AU - McNellan, Claire R.

AU - Mokdad, Ali H.

AU - Mooney, Meghan D.

AU - Naghavi, Mohsen

AU - Olsen, Helen E.

AU - Pigott, David M.

AU - Salomon, Joshua A.

AU - Vos, Theo

AU - Wang, Haidong

AU - Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu

AU - Abate, Kalkidan Hassen

AU - Abbafati, Cristiana

AU - Abbas, Kaja M.

AU - Abd-Allah, Foad

AU - Abdulle, Abdishakur M.

AU - Abraham, Biju

AU - Abubakar, Ibrahim

AU - Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

AU - Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.E.

AU - Abyu, Gebre Yitayih

AU - Achoki, Tom

AU - Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi

AU - Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi

AU - Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko

AU - Afshin, Ashkan

AU - Agarwal, Arnav

AU - Agrawal, Anurag

AU - Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad

AU - Ahmadieh, Hamid

AU - Ahmed, Kedir Yimam

AU - Akanda, Ali Shafqat

AU - Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola

AU - Akinyemiju, Tomi F.

AU - Akseer, Nadia

AU - Al-Aly, Ziyad

AU - Alam, Khurshid

AU - Alam, Uzma

AU - Alasfoor, Deena

AU - AlBuhairan, Fadia S.

AU - Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed

AU - Aldridge, Robert William

AU - Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw

AU - Ali, Raghib

AU - Alkerwi, Ala'a

AU - Alkhateeb, Mohammad AB

AU - Alla, François

AU - Allebeck, Peter

AU - Allen, Christine

AU - Al-Raddadi, Rajaa

AU - Altirkawi, Khalid A.

AU - Martin, Elena Alvarez

AU - Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

AU - Amare, Azmeraw T.

AU - Amberbir, Alemayehu

AU - Amegah, Adeladza Kofi

AU - Amini, Heresh

AU - Ammar, Walid

AU - Amrock, Stephen Marc

AU - Andersen, Hjalte H.

AU - Anderson, Benjamin O.

AU - Anderson, Gregory M.

AU - Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.

AU - Anwari, Palwasha

AU - Ärnlöv, Johan

AU - Artaman, Al

AU - Asayesh, Hamid

AU - Asghar, Rana Jawad

AU - Atique, Suleman

AU - Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur

AU - Awasthi, Ashish

AU - Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala

AU - Azzopardi, Peter

AU - Bacha, Umar

AU - Badawi, Alaa

AU - Balakrishnan, Kalpana

AU - Banerjee, Amitava

AU - Barac, Aleksandra

AU - Barber, Ryan

AU - Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.

AU - Bärnighausen, Till

AU - Barrero, Lope H.

AU - Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

AU - Basu, Sanjay

AU - Bayou, Tigist Assefa

AU - Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

AU - Beardsley, Justin

AU - Bedi, Neeraj

AU - Beghi, Ettore

AU - Béjot, Yannick

AU - Bell, Michelle L.

AU - Bello, Aminu K.

AU - Bennett, Derrick A.

AU - Bensenor, Isabela M.

AU - Benzian, Habib

AU - Berhane, Adugnaw

AU - Bernabé, Eduardo

AU - Bernal, Oscar Alberto

AU - Betsu, Balem Demtsu

AU - Beyene, Addisu Shunu

AU - Bhala, Neeraj

AU - Bhatt, Samir

AU - Biadgilign, Sibhatu

AU - Bienhoff, Kelly A.

AU - Bikbov, Boris

AU - Binagwaho, Agnes

AU - Bisanzio, Donal

AU - Bjertness, Espen

AU - Blore, Jed

AU - Bourne, Rupert R.A.

AU - Brainin, Michael

AU - Brauer, Michael

AU - Brazinova, Alexandra

AU - Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.

AU - Broday, David M.

AU - Brugha, Traolach S.

AU - Buchbinder, Rachelle

AU - Butt, Zahid A.

AU - Cahill, Leah E.

AU - Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo

AU - Campuzano, Julio Cesar

AU - Carabin, Hélène

AU - Cárdenas, Rosario

AU - Carrero, Juan Jesus

AU - Carter, Austin

AU - Casey, Daniel

AU - Caso, Valeria

AU - Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.

AU - Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo

AU - Catalá-López, Ferrán

AU - Cavalleri, Fiorella

AU - Cecílio, Pedro

AU - Chang, Hsing Yi

AU - Chang, Jung Chen

AU - Charlson, Fiona J.

AU - Che, Xuan

AU - Chen, Alan Zian

AU - Chiang, Peggy Pei Chia

AU - Chibalabala, Mirriam

AU - Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe

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AU - Murray, Christopher J.L.

PY - 2016/10/8

Y1 - 2016/10/8

N2 - Background In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). Methods We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990 and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed as the geometric mean of the rescaled indicators by SDG target. We used spline regressions to examine the relations between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI, a summary measure based on average income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate) and each of the health-related SDG indicators and indices. Findings In 2015, the median health-related SDG index was 59·3 (95% uncertainty interval 56·8–61·8) and varied widely by country, ranging from 85·5 (84·2–86·5) in Iceland to 20·4 (15·4–24·9) in Central African Republic. SDI was a good predictor of the health-related SDG index (r2=0·88) and the MDG index (r2=0·92), whereas the non-MDG index had a weaker relation with SDI (r2=0·79). Between 2000 and 2015, the health-related SDG index improved by a median of 7·9 (IQR 5·0–10·4), and gains on the MDG index (a median change of 10·0 [6·7–13·1]) exceeded that of the non-MDG index (a median change of 5·5 [2·1–8·9]). Since 2000, pronounced progress occurred for indicators such as met need with modern contraception, under-5 mortality, and neonatal mortality, as well as the indicator for universal health coverage tracer interventions. Moderate improvements were found for indicators such as HIV and tuberculosis incidence, minimal changes for hepatitis B incidence took place, and childhood overweight considerably worsened. Interpretation GBD provides an independent, comparable avenue for monitoring progress towards the health-related SDGs. Our analysis not only highlights the importance of income, education, and fertility as drivers of health improvement but also emphasises that investments in these areas alone will not be sufficient. Although considerable progress on the health-related MDG indicators has been made, these gains will need to be sustained and, in many cases, accelerated to achieve the ambitious SDG targets. The minimal improvement in or worsening of health-related indicators beyond the MDGs highlight the need for additional resources to effectively address the expanded scope of the health-related SDGs. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

AB - Background In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). Methods We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990 and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed as the geometric mean of the rescaled indicators by SDG target. We used spline regressions to examine the relations between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI, a summary measure based on average income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate) and each of the health-related SDG indicators and indices. Findings In 2015, the median health-related SDG index was 59·3 (95% uncertainty interval 56·8–61·8) and varied widely by country, ranging from 85·5 (84·2–86·5) in Iceland to 20·4 (15·4–24·9) in Central African Republic. SDI was a good predictor of the health-related SDG index (r2=0·88) and the MDG index (r2=0·92), whereas the non-MDG index had a weaker relation with SDI (r2=0·79). Between 2000 and 2015, the health-related SDG index improved by a median of 7·9 (IQR 5·0–10·4), and gains on the MDG index (a median change of 10·0 [6·7–13·1]) exceeded that of the non-MDG index (a median change of 5·5 [2·1–8·9]). Since 2000, pronounced progress occurred for indicators such as met need with modern contraception, under-5 mortality, and neonatal mortality, as well as the indicator for universal health coverage tracer interventions. Moderate improvements were found for indicators such as HIV and tuberculosis incidence, minimal changes for hepatitis B incidence took place, and childhood overweight considerably worsened. Interpretation GBD provides an independent, comparable avenue for monitoring progress towards the health-related SDGs. Our analysis not only highlights the importance of income, education, and fertility as drivers of health improvement but also emphasises that investments in these areas alone will not be sufficient. Although considerable progress on the health-related MDG indicators has been made, these gains will need to be sustained and, in many cases, accelerated to achieve the ambitious SDG targets. The minimal improvement in or worsening of health-related indicators beyond the MDGs highlight the need for additional resources to effectively address the expanded scope of the health-related SDGs. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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U2 - 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31467-2

DO - 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31467-2

M3 - Article

VL - 388

SP - 1813

EP - 1850

JO - The Lancet

JF - The Lancet

SN - 0140-6736

IS - 10053

ER -