Life-cycle analysis of production and recycling of lithium ion batteries

Linda Gaines, John Sullivan, Andrew Burnham, Ilias Belharouak

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14 Citations (Scopus)


This paper discusses what is known about the life-cycle burdens of lithium ion batteries. Constituent-material production and the subsequent manufacturing of batteries are emphasized. Of particular interest is estimation of the impact of battery material recycling on battery manufacturing. Because some materials come from comparatively less plentiful resources, the recycling of lithium ion batteries and the potential impact on battery-production life-cycle burdens are discussed. This effort represents the early stage of lithium ion battery life-cycle analysis, in which processes are characterized preparatory to detailed data acquisition. Notwithstanding the lack of data on production of battery materials, it is estimated that the energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with battery manufacturing make up only a small percentage of a plug-in hybrid vehicle's total life-cycle energy use. Further, the recycling of battery materials potentially can significantly reduce the material production energy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-65
Number of pages9
JournalTransportation Research Record
Issue number2252
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering

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