### Abstract

The modeling of system semantics (in several ICT domains) by means of pattern analysis or relational learning is a product of latest results in statistical learning theory. For example, the modeling of natural language semantics expressed by text, images, speech in information search (e.g. Google, Yahoo,..) or DNA sequence labeling in Bioinformatics represent distinguished cases of successful use of statistical machine learning. The reason of this success is due to the ability to overcome the concrete limitations of logic/rule-based approaches to semantic modeling: although, from a knowledge engineer perspective, rules are natural methods to encode system semantics, noise, ambiguity and errors affecting dynamic systems, prevent such approached from being effective, e.g. they are not flexible enough. In contrast, statistical relational learning, applied to representations of system states, i.e. training examples, can produce semantic models of system behavior based on a large number attributes. As the values of the latter are automatically learned, they reflect the flexibility of statistical settings and the overall model is robust to unexpected system condition changes. Unfortunately, while attribute weight and their relations with other attributes can be automatically learned from examples, their design for representing the target object (e.g. a system state) has to be manually carry out. This requires expertise, intuition and deep knowledge about the expected system behavior. A typical difficult task is for example the conversion of structures into attribute-value representations. Kernel Methods are powerful techniques designed within the statistical learning theory. They can be used in learning algorithms in place of attributes, thus simplifying object representation. More specifically, kernel functions can define structural and semantic similarities between objects (e.g. states) at abstract level, replacing the similarity defined in terms of attribute overlap. In this chapter, we provide the basic notions of machine learning along with latest theoretical results obtained in recent years. First, we show traditional and simple machine learning algorithms based on attribute-value representations and probability notions such as the Naive Bayes and the Decision Tree classifiers. Second, we introduce the PAC learning theory and the Perceptron algorithm to provide the readers with essential concepts of modern machine learning. Finally, we use the above background to illustrate a simplified theory of Support Vector Machines, which, along with the kernel methods, are the ultimate product of the statistical learning theory.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Title of host publication | Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) |

Pages | 458-503 |

Number of pages | 46 |

Volume | 6659 LNCS |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 22 Jun 2011 |

Externally published | Yes |

Event | 11th International School on Formal Methods for the Design of Computer, Communication and Software Systems, SFM 2011 - Bertinoro, Italy Duration: 13 Jun 2011 → 18 Jun 2011 |

### Publication series

Name | Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) |
---|---|

Volume | 6659 LNCS |

ISSN (Print) | 03029743 |

ISSN (Electronic) | 16113349 |

### Other

Other | 11th International School on Formal Methods for the Design of Computer, Communication and Software Systems, SFM 2011 |
---|---|

Country | Italy |

City | Bertinoro |

Period | 13/6/11 → 18/6/11 |

### Fingerprint

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Computer Science(all)
- Theoretical Computer Science

### Cite this

*Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)*(Vol. 6659 LNCS, pp. 458-503). (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); Vol. 6659 LNCS). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-21455-4_14

**Kernel-based machines for abstract and easy modeling of automatic learning.** / Moschitti, Alessandro.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution

*Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics).*vol. 6659 LNCS, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 6659 LNCS, pp. 458-503, 11th International School on Formal Methods for the Design of Computer, Communication and Software Systems, SFM 2011, Bertinoro, Italy, 13/6/11. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-21455-4_14

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Kernel-based machines for abstract and easy modeling of automatic learning

AU - Moschitti, Alessandro

PY - 2011/6/22

Y1 - 2011/6/22

N2 - The modeling of system semantics (in several ICT domains) by means of pattern analysis or relational learning is a product of latest results in statistical learning theory. For example, the modeling of natural language semantics expressed by text, images, speech in information search (e.g. Google, Yahoo,..) or DNA sequence labeling in Bioinformatics represent distinguished cases of successful use of statistical machine learning. The reason of this success is due to the ability to overcome the concrete limitations of logic/rule-based approaches to semantic modeling: although, from a knowledge engineer perspective, rules are natural methods to encode system semantics, noise, ambiguity and errors affecting dynamic systems, prevent such approached from being effective, e.g. they are not flexible enough. In contrast, statistical relational learning, applied to representations of system states, i.e. training examples, can produce semantic models of system behavior based on a large number attributes. As the values of the latter are automatically learned, they reflect the flexibility of statistical settings and the overall model is robust to unexpected system condition changes. Unfortunately, while attribute weight and their relations with other attributes can be automatically learned from examples, their design for representing the target object (e.g. a system state) has to be manually carry out. This requires expertise, intuition and deep knowledge about the expected system behavior. A typical difficult task is for example the conversion of structures into attribute-value representations. Kernel Methods are powerful techniques designed within the statistical learning theory. They can be used in learning algorithms in place of attributes, thus simplifying object representation. More specifically, kernel functions can define structural and semantic similarities between objects (e.g. states) at abstract level, replacing the similarity defined in terms of attribute overlap. In this chapter, we provide the basic notions of machine learning along with latest theoretical results obtained in recent years. First, we show traditional and simple machine learning algorithms based on attribute-value representations and probability notions such as the Naive Bayes and the Decision Tree classifiers. Second, we introduce the PAC learning theory and the Perceptron algorithm to provide the readers with essential concepts of modern machine learning. Finally, we use the above background to illustrate a simplified theory of Support Vector Machines, which, along with the kernel methods, are the ultimate product of the statistical learning theory.

AB - The modeling of system semantics (in several ICT domains) by means of pattern analysis or relational learning is a product of latest results in statistical learning theory. For example, the modeling of natural language semantics expressed by text, images, speech in information search (e.g. Google, Yahoo,..) or DNA sequence labeling in Bioinformatics represent distinguished cases of successful use of statistical machine learning. The reason of this success is due to the ability to overcome the concrete limitations of logic/rule-based approaches to semantic modeling: although, from a knowledge engineer perspective, rules are natural methods to encode system semantics, noise, ambiguity and errors affecting dynamic systems, prevent such approached from being effective, e.g. they are not flexible enough. In contrast, statistical relational learning, applied to representations of system states, i.e. training examples, can produce semantic models of system behavior based on a large number attributes. As the values of the latter are automatically learned, they reflect the flexibility of statistical settings and the overall model is robust to unexpected system condition changes. Unfortunately, while attribute weight and their relations with other attributes can be automatically learned from examples, their design for representing the target object (e.g. a system state) has to be manually carry out. This requires expertise, intuition and deep knowledge about the expected system behavior. A typical difficult task is for example the conversion of structures into attribute-value representations. Kernel Methods are powerful techniques designed within the statistical learning theory. They can be used in learning algorithms in place of attributes, thus simplifying object representation. More specifically, kernel functions can define structural and semantic similarities between objects (e.g. states) at abstract level, replacing the similarity defined in terms of attribute overlap. In this chapter, we provide the basic notions of machine learning along with latest theoretical results obtained in recent years. First, we show traditional and simple machine learning algorithms based on attribute-value representations and probability notions such as the Naive Bayes and the Decision Tree classifiers. Second, we introduce the PAC learning theory and the Perceptron algorithm to provide the readers with essential concepts of modern machine learning. Finally, we use the above background to illustrate a simplified theory of Support Vector Machines, which, along with the kernel methods, are the ultimate product of the statistical learning theory.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79959195305&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79959195305&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/978-3-642-21455-4_14

DO - 10.1007/978-3-642-21455-4_14

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:79959195305

SN - 9783642214547

VL - 6659 LNCS

T3 - Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)

SP - 458

EP - 503

BT - Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)

ER -